This section will focus on energetic theory according to the oriental perspective [ie. Ayurveda, Tantra, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)], giving precedence to Ayurveda and Tantra. The Sushruta Samhita and Suchi Veda (“Art of Piercing with a Needle”) emphasized the practice of acupuncture [traditionally: bhedan karma “piercing-through therapy”], which utilized the therapy of anatomical pressure points (marma), through needle puncture; Ayurveda generic treatment of energy points (marma chikitsa). Charaka says that needling (acupuncture) and burning (moxibustion) can facilitate consciousness. (Ros)


Energetic theory will be summarized by progressively unfolding the categorical scopes used to describe the complexity of energetic manifestation. Through the subtle energy body (prana kosa), the therapist (ie.acupuncturist, massage, herbalist, etc.) approaches a more causal, or original manifestation of self. On this level, the therapist studies and treats the patterns in energetic relationships, or the prana. The prana unfolds itself into a complex web of patterns, which serves as the therapist’s language, or theory-map. Acupuncture is the penetration of an energetic cavity, or point, in order to synergistically adjust the meridian network of qi closer to its inherent polar equilibrium.


Because acupuncture treats energy, the acupuncturist must first understand (observe) the common patterns of prana, or the energetic frame of reference, found in syndrome or good health. Then the acupuncturist gathers (discover) a set of pathological symptoms that characterize the particular syndrome (pattern of disease or disorder), which is then interpreted as the diagnosis. Finally, the acupuncturist formulates the treatment plan and point prescription, which is applied (create) through the utilization of appropriate energetic modalities in order to restore a balanced energetic environment.



Zero point is the vast intermediary space between the absolute (timeless, formless, nonexistence, source of creation, godhead, unity) and the relative (manifested creation, myriad things, existence) universe. As a gate between the intangible and the tangible, this is the wormhole that folds space-time, where all scientific law breaks down. It is the potential source of energy contained in a seed [Sanskrit: bindu].


Black holes help explain the phenomenon of zero point, which contains the infinite. They are either the product of the primordial universe (beginning-birth), or of gravitational collapse of a high mass (>3 suns) star (end-death). In the singularity point of the black hole is where space and time are integrated and all physics breaks down.


Black holes can only be measured in terms of mass, electrical charge, angular momentum (spin), and size (which is proportional to its mass). The event horizon (which cannot be measured) of the black hole is the boundary between the inside and the outside of space-time continuum. Nothing, not even light can ever escape from inside the event horizon. When something falls into the black hole, strong tidal forces crush the object into the singularity point. There is no mass limit to black holes. Black holes are thought to aid galaxy formation as active yet void (until the singularity point) galactic centers. Active galactic nuclei and galaxy rotation support this theory.


Vedic Sunya: Buddhist Sunyata

The fundamental cosmic element is space, which embraces unity. Because its nature is empty, it embraces and is the precondition of everything. Nothing of substance can exist or be differentiated without space. Therefore it is the foundation of consciousness. Consciousness of infinite space, beyond the space of time, leads to the realization of infinite consciousness. During meditation, the infinite consciousness occurs when time and space are transcended and unified into a point (bindu), which represents the end of integration and the beginning of the unfolding of inner space. Bindu is where the internal and the external have their origin and reintegration. (Shambhala)


The great void, or emptiness [Sanskrit: sunya; sunyata] [sim. Taoist: hundun (Hamilton, Daozhan)], the central idea in Buddhism recognizes that ultimately all things are empty, impermanent, devoid of essence, and characterized by suffering. Sunya is one of three attributes of the state of superconsciousness (samadhi); the others are fully awakened consciousness (chaitanya) and bliss (ananda). The state of sunya remains inaccessible to those bound by space and time. Sunyata is a state of realizing the universal consciousness, a mirror-like wisdom, which reflects the forms of all things without clinging to them or without being touched or moved by them. It is the collective transformation of the five aspects (skanda) of individual existence into the enlightened cosmic consciousness (boddhi-citta). (Govinda)


The void is the cosmic ocean that contains, permeates, and maintains the development of all phenomena. It is the source of creation as well as the unifying force of all phenomena. The Hinayana school, sunyata is applied to the individual as being an empty vessel. The Mahayana school denies individual empty vessels and thus arrives at total insubstantiality. (Shambhala)


The Madhyamika school (middle path between existence and nonexistence) views emptiness as having a two-fold character; emptiness of the self, or egolessness (reminiscent of Hinayana) and liberation, or emptiness as being equivalent to absoluteness (reminiscent of Mahayana). To realize emptiness means to attain liberation, which is accomplished by purifying the mind of affirmation (yes) and negation (no), thus embracing neutrality (I don’t know). The Madhyamika teaching believed that the absolute truth (emptiness of all phenomena beyond existence and nonexistence) could be realized by working through the relative truth (which does not exist because of its interdependence on the absolute truth). To the Madhyamika school, sunyata has three functions:


1)       Is the precondition for the arising and impermanence of all beings

2)       Enables liberation from samsara (cycle of birth, death, and rebirth)

3)       Enables the comprehension of emptiness through wisdom (prajna); thus enables the realization of nirvana (extinction of samsara)


Madhyamika was also known as Sunyatavada (teaching of emptiness), because of its teaching concerning the emptiness of all things. In the Yogachara school all things are empty because they arise from the mind, which is equated with sunyata. The realization of emptiness, the absolute truth or enlightenment, which is viewed as the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice, doesn’t happen through philosophical argument but through direct experience (tantra). (Shambhala)


According to the teachings of the Tibetan Book of the Dead (Bardo Thodol) there are five dhyani-buddhas arranged in a four petaled lotus mandala [Sanskrit: “circle, arch, section”]; (see fig. 8) Vairocana Buddha occupying the center represents the undifferentiated universal principle of consciousness and the embodiment of the all-embracing great void. (Govinda) The Bardo Thodol differentiates six bardos, or in-between space, or suspended states of consciousness. The first three bardos of birth, dream, and meditation correspond to life, and the last three, moment of death, supreme reality, and becoming, correspond to death and rebirth. (see fig. 16-19)


SINGULARITY POINT IN VOID: Nature of Absolute Reality (Parama-Shiva; Atattva)

The Vedic sciences (eg.Ayurveda, “the science of life”) applies to all living things, because the tradition itself is alive. The Vedic seers (rishis) believed that everything (ie.earth, a rock, death, etc.) is alive in consciousness, but differ according to their energetic frequency. (Ros)


At the foundation of Vedic philosophy is the truth of absolute reality, which is the preliminary singular totality of the cosmic integrity, everything that is known and unknown, manifest tangible and unmanifest intangible. For this reason, the absolute reality cannot be completely explained and is undifferentiated. The cosmic integrity surrounds, permeates, and binds everything through itself, which consists inherently of energy (prana) [sim.TCM: energy (qi); Taoist: great unity (taiyi); (Hamilton, Daozhan)].


According to Vedic philosophy, all disciplines of various perspectives ultimately lead to the original singular truth of existential unity. The Vedic rishis attempted to describe their experiences with the indescribable absolute reality as being true (satyam) because it exists, harmonious (rtam) because it has a self-sustaining natural order, and vast (brhat) because it is omnipresent beyond imagination. According to the mythologies of the world, even the gods were subject to the cosmic order.


The ultimate reality yet to be realized within every living entity is the source of creation.


Anthropocosm: Juxtaposition of Microcosm and Macrocosm; Embodiment of the Ultimate

The vastness of the external universe, macrocosm, is a living reflection of the vastness of the internal human body, microcosm.


“Man is the epitome of the universe. There is in man as much diversity as in the world outside, and there is in the world as much diversity as in man.”


When the human being functions as a harmonious living unit of the universe, the microcosm juxtaposes, or aligns, with the macrocosm, to become the anthropocosm, the cosmic human. The absolute singularity parallels the notion of a supreme being (ie.God), whose body parts (ie.the universe) are as alive as every cell in the human body. The mutual interdependence of the parts and the whole are essential for harmonious life. The unchanging (permanent) quality of the absolute cosmic integrity is that it is constantly changing (impermanent) through myriad manifestations. (see fig. 3, 8, 13, 17)


The goal of the Vedic religion is to define, create, and maintain the anthropocosm, where the ultimate destination is union with the absolute, which is a truth relative to the preferred experience of the individual.


Earth Mother and Sky Father: Weaving Union; (Saraswati), (Ros), (Svoboda)

According to Vedic tradition, human consciousness is contained within the physical body living on the gross plane of Earth (eg.specific existence; contraction of energy into matter), and deities are personifications of cosmic forces, spirits inhabiting the subtle plane of Sky/Heaven (eg.general existence; expansion of matter into energy). Humans and deities are both dependent on the cosmic rhythm which created them. Because deities exist both inside and outside the human body, they can be appeased through exoteric (eg.Ayurveda) and esoteric (eg.Tantra) sacrificial rites. Tantra (implying the interconnectedness of micro and macro, earth and sky, root and crown), the internal system of sacrificial rites (which uses the internal to influence the external; unlike Ayurveda which uses external to influence internal), developed as a result of the personal experiences of Vedic iconoclasts attempting to unlock the lost secrets of esotericism within the incantations of the Atharva-Veda.


Internal Conduit: Spinal Mechanism for Ascending Serpent Power (Kundalini Shakti);

(Saraswati), (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar); (see fig. 13-14)

Tantric practice teaches that the spirit priest (consciousness) within the body temple (ie.fire altar) can transform its anthropocosmic paradigm through a process of inner awakenings which facilitates an alignment between microcosm with macrocosm. Tantra is the internal resemblance of the external Vedic sacrifice, which is performed at a vertical pole, which functions as an axis of the world (axis mundi) connecting earth and sky. The axis of sacrificial ritual is typically worshipped as the Shiva Linga, or penis (linga; vajra) of Shiva (sky) which rests on the base of the vagina (yoni) of his wife, Parvati (earth), representing the heavenly extension of the central channel through the root to earth, which facilitates the sexual union of the divine male and female; (Consequently, this symbolism may have lead to the misunderstanding of Tantra being the religion of sexual excess, when actually sex rites are only an aspect of Tantra.)] The caduceus (medical insignia) [sim.Sumerian: winged staff of Ningishzida/Hermes; (Sitchin)], represented as a staff with interweaving serpents whose heads terminate at a winged disc, symbolically depicts the polar conduit between earth and sky. Internally, this world axis (central channel) runs in the center of the body, anterior the spine to connect the perineum (between the anus and genitalia), microcosmic earth, with the brain, microcosmic sky.


The developing fetus represents the contraction of energy into matter, from the ethereal to the corporeal via the spinal axis (central channel). The microcosm of the human being contains the polarity of earth and sky, which are centered on the extremes of the central channel. The cosmic energy which projected into the human being while in the womb identifies with the body as ego [Ayurveda: ahamkara], or power [Tantra: kundalini shakti]. In the common exoteric person the kundalini shakti remains dormant at the perineum root, where their consciousness remains corporeal. The Tantric esoteric adept awakens the kundalini shakti through the mechanism of the spinal cord facilitating the rising of their consciousness towards the ethereal crown.


External Conduit: Sacrificial Fire (Yugya) in the Practice of Health; (Svoboda), (Ros)

The harmony of the surrounding environment depends on the collective individuals within it to maintain their personal peace. In Vedic tradition, people preserve harmony through sacrifice. Vedic sacrificial rites are performed by offering consecrated substances with hymns into a sacred fire (yugya), which opens a channel of harmonic communication between the macrocosm (heaven) and the microcosm (human individual). Fire serves as the divine mediator between the two worlds receiving food (sacrifice) into its body (altar), and sending its purified essence as ‘fragrance’ to feed the divine, who eventually responds with rain which facilitates the growth of grain for humanity. The mutual nourishment of, and hence harmony between, divinity and humanity is dependent on the conduit of fire; field of transformation.


On the physiological scope of Ayurveda, ingestion is a daily fire sacrifice, with the food nutrients (fragrance) ascending to nourish the brain (divine), which regulates the release of hormones (rain), which in turn nourish the body (earth). Therefore, Sushruta labels an Ayurvedic practitioner who practices healthy eating a ‘fire worshipper.’ Ingested medicines are also considered a fire sacrifice. Ayurveda considers fire (agni) essential in life for the purification process in digestion as well as for clarity in thought. The fire of life (agni), health, as well as disease, are all the result of many converging factors (yukti).


Body Temple (Sharira): Vehicle to Self-Realization; (Feuerstein)

According to the vertical perspective, the body [Skt.: “to smear,” “to be soiled,” “to anoint” (deha)] is a location for facilitating karmic bondage, and thus hindering spiritual enlightenment.  From the integral perspective depicted in the Upanishads and later adopted in Tantric practice, the body [older Skt.: “to support,” “to rest upon” (sharira)] is a temple of the Divine, where the self (atman) can experience the world as the manifestation of supreme Reality. In other words, the body serves as a platform, or vehicle, to self-realization. To go beyond the unconscious behavior patterns, which perpetuate the karmic condition, the self must identify with the principle of awareness (atman). The wheel of worldly existence (karma chakra) expresses the total of previous unenlightened volitions (samkalpa) as the current life. Karma chakra can be interrupted for the achievement of liberation, if awareness is shifted from the individual body-mind to the collective soul (atman). Thus, life becomes a golden opportunity for spiritual cultivation, and the healthier the body the longer the opportunity.


“We cannot make peace with the world until we have found it within ourselves.” –Evno


“Strife and discontentment come from a feeling that one is alone in the universe, that one is separate from everything else. Peace comes in realizing that these distinctions only have the weight you give them.” -Evno


Model of Existence: Evolution of Manifestation from the Ultimate Reality;

(Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar, Philosophy); (see fig. 1)

According to the Kashmir Tantra school, Pratyabhijna, the Tantric ontology, or model of existence, is comprised of 36 principles or categories (tattva), which evolved into distinction out of the ultimate reality (parama-shiva), or the meta-principle (atattva) [sim.Buddhist→Taoist heaven] According to the Advaita Vedenta, the world of multiplicity is the product of spiritual ignorance (avidya); the world is an illusion (maya), or unreal (asat), because it appears as something else to the unenlightened mind. After the root of ignorance is removed, the world reveals its true nature, the singular consciousness of bliss (saccid ananda). The transition from the one to the many is not the genuine emanation but an apparent evolution (vivarta). The process of emanation (sat-karya-vada), denotes that the effect (karya) is preexistent (sat) in the cause, as the potential for the existence of the ultimate reality.


The Samkhya school of Tantra borrowed the fundamentals of the 24 ontological principles (prakriti) from the Rig Veda, and included a subtle 25th principle of supreme consciousness (purusha). The 25th principle was later expanded into 12 subtle principles that are experiences in meditational ecstacy. According to the Pratyabijna school, the ultimate principle, or pure consciousness (parama-shiva), includes the transcental power (shakti); consciousness (shiva) and energy (shakti) are inseparable parts of the ultimate reality.


Principles of Existence (36): Structure of Heaven (see fig. 1)

1)       Universal:

i)                     The Benevolent (Shiva): the male or consciousness aspect of the ultimate bipolar reality

ii)                   Power (Shakti): the female of power/energy aspect of the ultimate bipolar reality, which polarizes consciousness into “I” (aham) and “this” (idam), or subject and object, without a dualistic separation

iii)                  That which is named Being (Sadakhya/Sat)/ Ever-Benevolent (Sada-Shiva): the transcendental will (iccha) which recognizes and affirms the subjective “I” rather than the objective “this” of the universal bipolar oneness

iv)                  Lord (Ishvara): the Creator corresponding to the realization of “this I am,” subtly emphasizing the objective aspect of oneness, thus facilitating cosmic evolution

v)                    Knowledge of Being (Sad-Vidya)/ Pure Knowledge (Shuddha-Vidya): balance between the subjective and objective, now distinguishable within oneness


2)       Limiting:

i)                     She Who Measures (Maya): the power of delusion inherent in ultimate reality, by which the one appears to be limited and measurable through the separation of subject and object, marking the beginning of impure existence

ii)                   Five Coverings (Kancuka): (associated with Maya)

a)       Part (Kala): principle by which the unlimited creator of consciousness becomes limited, causing limited effectiveness

b)       Knowledge (Vidya): the limiting of the omniscience of consciousness into finite knowledge

c)       Attachment (Raga): the disruption of the wholeness (purnatva) of consciousness into the desire for partial experience

d)       Time (Kala): the reduction of the eternity of consciousness into temporal existence, marked by the past, present, and future

e)       Necessity (Niyati): the limiting of the independence and pervasiveness of consciousness into the limitation relative to cause, space, and form


3)       Individuation:

i)                     Man (Purusha)/ Atom (Anu): the conscious subject, or self, which experiences the objective reality

ii)                   Creatrix (Prakriti): the objective reality, or nature, which is particular to each conscious subject


4)       Inner Instrument (Antahkarana): Four Aspects of Mind

i)                     Understanding (Buddhi): intelligence capable of making distinctions; discriminating aspect; connects to the inner self (purusha); sattvic nature

ii)                   I-maker (Ahamkara): individuation through appropriate personal experience (“I am such, “I possess such”); between inner and outer (duality begins here); rajasic nature

iii)                  Mind (Manas): synthesis of sensory stimulus into whole concepts and symbols; emotional level; flows outward; rajasic in nature

iv)                  Memory (Chitta): conditioned consciousness; illuminates the three other functions; sattvic, rajasic, tamasic


5)       Experience:

i)                     Five Powers of Cognition (Jnana-Indriya; Jnanendriya): five senses

a)       Smell (Ghrana): the olefactory sense

b)       Taste (Rasa): the gustatory sense

c)       Sight (Cakshus): vision sense

d)       Touch (Sparsha): the tactile sense

e)       Hearing (Shravana): auditory sense

ii)                   Five Powers of Conation (Karma-Indriya; Karmendriya):

a)       Speech (Vac): communication faculty

b)       Hand (Hasta): manipulation faculty

c)       Foot (Pada): locomotion faculty

d)       Anus (Payu): digestion faculty

e)       Genitals (Upastha): procreative faculty

iii)                  Five Subtle Elements (Tanmatra): potential for perception

a)       Sound (Shabda-Tanmatra)

b)       Touch (Sparsha-Tanmatra)

c)       Sight (Rupa-Tanmatra)

d)       Taste (Rasa-Tanmatra)

e)       Smell (Gandha-Tanmatra)


6)       Material: Five Great Elements (Mahabhuta)

i)                     Ether (Akasha): vacuity produced from the subtle element of sound

ii)                   Air (Vayu): motility produced from the subtle element of touch

iii)                  Fire (Agni): formation produced from the subtle element of sight

iv)                  Water (Apo/Jala): liquidity produced from the subtle element of taste

v)                    Earth (Prithivi): solidity produced from the subtle element of smell


Personality of Ultimate Reality (Parama-Shiva; Shiva-Shakti): Supreme Deity;

(Feuerstein), (Motoyama), (Saraswati)

According to the Tantric practitioner (tantrika), the deities were entities on the subtle plains of existence, endowed with supernatural power but not yet liberated, like the perfected masters of humanity (siddha). Hence, deities attained liberation via human incarnation. Tantric tradition believes that deities are real entities that correspond to an energetic presence, or energetic personalities, which correspond to specific areas (ie.chakras) within the subtle dimension. Eventhough the deities are viewed as limited, they can function as portals (sim.chakra) to the ultimate reality. According to the Shaiva schools (eg.Siddhanta tradition) of South India, visualization of energetic personification is considered devotional service (bhakti) to the pertaining deity.


The Tantras categorize deities into two groups according to a gender distinction originating from the singular eternal being (eg.Parama-Shiva; Shiva-Shakti). According to the Mahanirvana Tantra, Shiva and his spouse, recipient of his teachings, are seated upon Mount Kailasa [sim.Taoist: Kunlun; (Hamilton, Daozhan)], the world mountain.


1)       Agamas (male): corresponding to Shiva (also: Bhaivara, Ganesha, Vishnu)

2)       Nigamas (female): corresponding to Shakti (also: Devi, Kali, Durga, Uma, Lakshmi, Kubjika)


Totality of Existence: Wholeness (Purna); Seat of Consciousness; (Feuerstein)

Parama-Shiva, the totality of existence, is conceptualized as the combination of being (sac), consciousness (sat), and bliss (ananda) (sac-sat-ananda), hence being both transcendental (vishva-uttirna) and mundane (vishva-maya) within the vibration (spanda) source. Tantrikas refer to the ultimate reality as consciousness (cit), conscious (caitanya), supreme knowing (para-samvid), or heart (hridaya), which is considered the seat of consciousness [sim.Taoist: shen; (Cleary)]. The Parama-Shiva is further described as being the source luminosity (prakasha), as well as a self-revealing mirror (vimarsha) [Skt.: “to touch”]. Parama-Shiva is omnipotent because it possesses all power (shaktimat) (ie. five most important powers).


1)       Self-revealing Consciousness (cit)

2)       Absolute Bliss (ananda)

3)       Unlimited Will (iccha): omnipotence

4)       Total Knowledge (jnana): ominscience

5)       Universal Dynamism (kriya)


The five powers inherent to the ultimate reality are the foundation for self-concealment and self-revelation, existential attributes which blend transcendence with mundanity into the whole.


Principle of Consciousness (Shiva): Pure Subject; (Feuerstein)

The pure subject of “I,” that Kashmiri Shaivism addresses as “I-ness” (ahamta), which is distinct from the lower “I am,” “I am this,” “I am here,” “I-maker,” or ego consciousness (ahamkara). The mantric sound for “I” (aham) emerges from the ultimate reality to provide distinction to Shiva as the fundamental power of consciousness (cit-shakti) inherent in Parama-Shiva, prior to space and time. According to the Tantra-Aloka, Shiva is depicted as both the mother and father of the cosmos, being the universal agent, or singular seed of the multiverse. There is no duality in Shiva since he is completely emersed in blissful union with his consort, Shakti.


Principle of Energy (Shakti): Pure Object; (Feuerstein)

The principle of energy (shakti), functions as a receptive co-creator of the universe, reflecting the potential seed of consciousness (parama-shiva), as the vibration (spanda-shakti) of absolute bliss (ananda). The seed (bindu) expands its pivot between subject and object, or experiencer and experience. Energy (shakti) obscures the true nature of consciousness (shiva), or being-consciousness-bliss (sac-sat-ananda), through progressive manifestation or mundane evolution into tangibility, referred to as concealment, or “closing” (nimesha), as opposed to the revelation, or “opening” (unmesha). Opening is the orientation of the tantrika’s spiritual path, which moves beyond mental limitations, delusion (moha), greed (lobha), aggression (krodha), and emotional obstruction via cosmic dissolution to ultimately arrive at original splendor (parama-shiva).


Divine Creation: Unity of Shiva and Shakti (see fig.6); (Feuerstein)

The combined unified relationship between consciousness (Shiva) and power (Shakti) as one entity, “Half-Woman-Lord” (Ardhanarishvara), has been depicted as being female on the left side with a breast and male on the right side with a trident [sim. Leonardo DaVinci Mona Lisa]. Ardhanarishvara is symbolically expressed through the intimate embrace, eternal love play (lila), of Shiva and Shakti, with Shakti sitting astride Shiva in the mother-father position [Tibetan: yab-yum] with her face turned upward in bliss. This sexual union actually represents asexual perpetual bliss within the cosmic human. Another expression of Shiva-Shakti unification is depicted through the fierceness of Kali (Shakti), with skull garland, weapons, and bloody tongue, towering over an ash smeared Shiva with massive erection, reclining in a corpse posture (shava-asana), who represents dispassion.


The divine intercourse symbol is simplified through the yoni-linga, representations of genitalia. The “mark,” or “phallus” (linga) sitting in a round or oval shaped bowl, the vulva (yoni), symbolizes the divine union, or Parama-Shiva, as well as the root center (muladhara chakra) (see ‘chakras’ below).


Another symbol of divine union is the shri-yantra, consisting of nine triangles, five upward pointing (representing Shiva) and four downward pointing (representing Shakti). Their interweaving forms a total of 49 triangles, symbolizing cosmic existence as a whole.


In the divine love play, female Shakti (representing the potential for unlimited power) is aggressive [sim.Jungian psychology: woman’s male side (animus)], while male Shiva (representing the absolute stillness of pure consciousness) is passively cool [sim.Jungian psychology: man’s female side (anima)], eventhough aroused. Together, Shiva-Shakti represents the polarity within the cycle of creation, manifestation, and movement, encompassed by the ultimate reality. The duality of Shiva-Shakti is reflected through the qualitative designation for complementary opposites, or the two-twos (dvandvas) (see ‘Pentology’ below), while the transcendental state beyond all opposites (nirdvandva) is the unity, which includes them.


DUALITY OF CAUSE AND EFFECT: Cycle of Cosmic Creation (Karma);

(Ros), (Feuerstein), (Saraswati)

Ayurveda perceives the universe as the periodical fluctuation between the manifested multiplicity from singularity (expansion) and unmanifested resolution (contraction). The moving cosmos (jagat) is alive through its pulsation in the eternal moment. The cosmic fluctuation between extremes establishes a duality (dvandva) within the interrelationships of all phenomena [sim.Taoist/TCM: duality (yang-yin); (Hamilton, Daozhan)].


“Cause is effect concealed, and effect is cause revealed.” (Vimalananda)


Cause and effect are time-differing parts of the same energetic process of creation. The cause (potential energy) is permanent as the common similarity for all living phenomena, while the effect (kinetic energy) is impermanent as the circumstantial difference in experience.


Cause and Effect (Karma): Action-Reaction; (Shambhala)

Karma [Skt.: “deed;” action] is understood definitively as action-consequence, or cause and effect, as applied across various scopes of moral situations.


1)       a mental or physical action

2)       the consequence of a mental of physical action

3)       the sum of all consequences of the actions of an individual in the current or previous life

4)       the chain of cause and effect in the world of morality

5)       Vedic: ritual worship and philanthropic actions


Consequence of Impulse (Samskara): Seed of Karma; (Shambhala)

According to Hindu philosophy, each individual’s karma is created by that person’s impressions, tendencies, or limitations (samskaras). This tendency potential directs a person’s behavior and motives for all thoughts and actions in the present or future. Thus, every karma is the seed for further karma. The sum total of samskaras form the person’s character.                            


After the karmic limitations (samskaras) have been recognized, the individual has the free choice or free will, to follow or resist them. This freedom is a reflection of original inner consciousness (atman). The laws of karma are loosened when an individual surrenders to the cosmic integrity by doing good deeds and dissoluting bad deeds. Once enlightenment is attained, no new karma is produced.


According to Buddhist philosophy, consequences of impulse (samskara) [Skt.: “formations; mental formational forces; impulses”] refers to sides of creative perception: to the activity of forming and the passive state of being formed.


Personality Aggregates (Skandha): Aggregates of Attachment (Upadana-skandha); (Shambhala)

Impulses (samskara) make up the fourth of a five-part group of aggregates (skandha) [Skt.: “group aggregate, heap”], which constitute the entirety of an individual’s personality.


1)       Corporeality/ Form (rupa): four elements (mahabhuta) of the firm (earth; prithvi)), fluid (water; jala), heating (fire; teja), and moving (air; vayu)

2)       Sensation (vedana):

3)       Perception (samjna)

4)       Mental Formations (samskara)

5)       Consciousness (vijnana)


The aggregates of personality are also referred to as the aggregates of attachment (upadana-skandha), since craving or desire (trishna) attaches itself to the personality which inturn becomes attracted to desire (arhats and buddhas excluded). According to Tibetan mysticism, the aggregates of attachment have elemental association with the lower five chakras in the alchemical process of distintegrating the elements [sim.Buddhist: stupa].


The characteristics of the skandhas (ie.birth, old age, death, duration, and change) are regarded without essence (anatman), impermanent (anitya), empty (sunya), and suffering-ridden (duhkha).



·         Agami-karma: future influence arising from present actions and desires

·         Prarabdha-karma: [Skt.: “before-begun”]; consequences of deeds performed in past lives that are being worked out in the current life; consequences of past deeds cannot be prevented

·         Sanchita-karma: the accumulated samskaras that have arisen in past lives and await effect in the future life


Karmic Debt (Rnanubandhana):

The debt of bondage (Skt: rnabandhana) occurs between two entities as a result of previous actions. Life is only a memory, which stores the sum of rnubandhanas in the causal body. The source of rnanubandhana, the first debt (rna), occurred after Shakti emanated from Shiva [sim.big bang]. Consequently, the natural progression is for Shakti to reunite with Shiva (ie.laya; dissolution of the elements) [sim.universal big crunch; Taoist: returning to the Tao]. The cycle of life and death (karma) persists until the causal body is destroyed, The life span (death; fate) is determined at the moment of creation; seeds of destruction are planted at the moment of creation and grow at a fixed rate. (Svoboda)


Cyclic Existence (Samsara): Macrocosmic Consciousness

Cyclic existence [Skt.: “that which flows together” (samsara); sam corresponds to the verbal root “to flow” (sri)] is governed by cause and effect (karma). The meaning of cyclic existence (samsara) can expand into “round of cyclic existence” (samsara mandala), “wheel of cyclic existence” (samsara chakra), “ocean of cyclic existence” (samsara sagara), or “tree of cyclic existence” (samsara vriksha), and flatly rendered as “conditioned existence,” and “mundane existence.” Samsara may be thought of as the learning process of worldly experience for the human psyche (jiva) until wisdom is awakened (vidya, jnana) to the reality beyond manifestation.  Samsara may also be thought of as the matrix of illusion (maya), or the root error (avidya) of perceiving the ego-personality rather than the indivisible pure Being-Consciousness, which perpetuates the karmic condition through the facilitation of experiential limitation, and hence the primary cause of suffering (duhkha). (Shambhala)


According to the Kula Arnava Tantra, Shiva declares that since samsara is the root of suffering, whoever exists within it is subject to suffering, and whoever renuciates (tyaga) it, becomes content. One who is bound (bandha) to the realm of cyclic existence is called a “worldling” (samsarin), or a “migratory,” while one who has succeeded in escaping karma, or cheating time (kala), is called a “great adept” (mahasiddha). The mahasiddha escapes samsara by recognizing within it the imperishable Self (Atman) as a secret door to liberation. In other words, the realization of samsara as the fundamental illusion leads to the transcendence of space-time continuum that veils consciousness in layers, and consequently, reveals the true nature of self, which is inherently free. (Feuerstein)


Cosmography: Fourteen Realms of Existence

According to Hindu cosmology, samsara consists of not only the visible material realm but fourteen levels of existence extending above and below the earth, which are visible through clairvoyance (duradarshana).


According to the Puranic-Tantric world picture, the earth is situated at the center of a vast multidimensional universe, known as the brahmic-egg (brahmanda). Earth is further depicted as being one of countless universe-islands floating in the infinite cosmic ocean, and being part of a vast circular plane called “earth round” (bhu mandala), which has a diameter of 500 million yojanas (4 billion miles; size of the solar system).


The earth round (bhu mandala) consists of seven concentric rings of land, or continents (planets), which are separated by concentric great oceans. The innermost island is known as Jambu island (jambu dvipa) (dia.100,000 yojanas; 800,000 miles), which is named after the Jambu tree [aka.”Tree of Life”] that grows on Mount Meru, or Sumeru, a cosmic mountain of solid gold (h.84,000 yojanas; 672,000 miles), at the center of the continent, or heart of bhu mandala. Jambu island is subdivided into nine regions (varsha), eight being semi-heavenly realms and the ninth being the heartland of earth (bharata varsha) [Bhagavata Purana: N-S axis dia. 9000 yojanas; 72,000 miles; larger than earth; sim. Sumerian primordial earth: Tiamat; (Sitchin)].


Underworld Planes: Hells (Naraka)

Below the higher-dimensional earth plane (bhur loka) are seven planes (tala) inhabited by various types of demons [sim.Sumerian: Nefilim; (Sitchin)]. Starting from the lowest and progressing in ascending order:


1)       Patala

2)       Rasatala

3)       Mahatala

4)       Talatala

5)       Sutala

6)       Vitala

7)       Atala


Celestial Planes: Heavens (Loka)

Above the earth plane (bhur loka) are six higher planes or celestial realms (loka) inhabited by various hierarchies of demigods and deities [sim.Sumerian: Elohim; (Sitchin)]. Starting from the lowest and progressing in ascending order:


1)       Bhuvarloka

2)       Svargaloka

3)       Maharloka

4)       Janaloka

5)       Tapoloka

6)       Satyaloka


The highest plane (satyaloka), inhabited by the Creator (ie.Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu), is the only aspect of brahmanda that survives periodic cosmic collapse (pralaya) of all the other planes; the satyaloka serves as the seed for the following evolutionary cosmos. Even the Creator is mortal (42,000 kalpas or brahmic days; 120 brahmic years; 4.53X1014 human years), supposedly in his 51st year. For this reason, some spiritual traditions find the attainmment of satyaloka undesirable, and instead find the human platform most desirable as depicted in mythology with envious deities.


Prison of Time (Kala): Goddess Kali; (Feuerstein)

Suffering is primarily caused by the experience of impermanence, manifesting as change (natural rhythms or abrupt transitions) and death, which are functions of time (kala). Cyclic existence (samsara) is an indicator for both spatial and temporal confinement; primarily, samsara is time (kala).


According to Buddhist Tantra, the wheel of time (kalachakra) (not to be confused with mere conventional time) is considered the supreme reality for its life-giving, sustaining, and ordering aspects (creation, preservation, destruction).


The feminine form of time (kala), is depicted as the fiercest form of the Divine Female [sim.Taoist: Mysterious Female; (Hamilton, Daozhan)], or power (shakti), Kali, meaning “time,” “death,” and “black.” According to the Mahanirvana-Tantra, Kali is addressed as the supreme yogini because at the end of time, she devours the devourer of time, Shiva in the form of the Destroyer of the Cosmos (Mahakala) [aka.”self-existent,” not subject to birth and death (Swayambhu); “Lord of Dance” (Nataraj) who is pure rhythm dancing in the flames of dissolution, creating, destroying, and preserving infinite universes in accord with his two-headed drum; “he who transforms something from the present tense to the past tense; he who kills you” (smarahara); root: “memory,” “lust” (smara); aka. one who steals life; mover of all atoms in the universe, “atomic force” (Anjaneya = Anuman/Hanuman)].


Divine Nature: Ultimate Reality (Nirvana); (Feuerstein)

According to Tantra, there are two aspects of understanding reality, or two truths.


1)       Material (laukika): tends to be partial and often corrupted; (horizontal)

2)       Spiritual (adhyatmika): informed my wisdom that leads to the ultimate reality; (vertical)


When the two perspectives on understanding reality are combined appropriately, a total cognitive shift occurs where the phenomenominal world (samsara) is rendered transparent through superior wisdom (nirvana). The Tantric approach to declare that samsara is nirvana is practical; using teachings (sadhana-shastras) designed to aid spiritual discipline, and recognizing that true nature (sahaja) is always inherent.


Declarations of Realization:

1)       Finite world is infinite: if the limited world is perceived as an illusion (maya)

2)       Finite world is experienced as the unchanging reality by the sage

3)       Traditional formula: world and reality are indistinct


Approaches to Life: Horizontal, Vertical, Integral approaches for Liberation (Moksha)

The body of Hindu teachings for worldlings (samsarin) consists of legal literature (dharma-shastra). For example, the Manu-Smriti consists of 2685 verses ascribed to the legendary progenitor of the human race, Manu, and provides guidance on goals of human existence: material welfare (artha), passionate self-expression (kama), and moral virtue and lawfulness (dharma). Manu divided the course of life into four stages (4x21 years = 84 years): student, householder, renouncer, and liberated being (purushartha).


The liberated life (moksha) is the focus of the body of literature (moksha-shastra), which belongs to both revelatory authority (shruti) [eg.Vedas, Upanishads, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Tantras (for adherents of Tantra)] and traditional authority (smriti) [eg.Mahabharata, Puranas, Sutras].


1)       Path of Cessation (nivritti-marga): horizontal; extroverted lifestyle of the worldling (samsarin) who is preoccupied with job, family, possessions, status, prospects; the worldling perceives the One (eka) to remain hidden

2)       Path of Activity (pravritti-marga): vertical; introverted lifestyle which begins with renouncing worldly life (3rd stage) in order to intensify ritual practice, meditation, prayer, and focus on the ideal of ultimate liberation (purushartha); the spiritual seeker focuses exclusively on the Self (atman) (believed to be luminously present in the heart, or “cave of the mind” (dhi-guha), and abandons all conventional pursuits; the seeker perceives the One as a distant goal

3)       Path of Wholeness (purna-marga): integral; after renunciation has spawned the realization of transcendent reality, or innermost Self (atman), which is inherent in all beings, spontaneous lifestyle of the liberated being (purushartha), or the illumined sage, is integrated to combine all approaches (ie.horizontal, vertical, integral); emerged with the flourishing of Tantra; emphasizes inner work (sacrifice) (antar-yoga), rather than external ritual, though without total dismissal; initiates perceive the One as an inner guide that becomes the only existent whole to the progressed Self-realized sage


Causal Singular Seed: Fragmentation of the Primordial Father (Purusha);

(Shambhala), (Kshirsagar), (Ros), (Svoboda)

Prior to the causation of the creation of the universe, there existed a seed (bindu). The personality of the seed, the spiritual homogeny (purusha) beyond causation, pure consciousness existing within a singularity point, encapsulated the potential for the omni-complexity of cosmos. The causal originality of purusha [sim.Taoist: Supreme Ruler of Heaven (Shangdi); (Hamilton, Daozhan)] cannot be separated from the effectual cosmos.


Cycle of Creation and Destruction: Union of Consciousness (Purusha) and Nature (Prakriti)

Purusha [Skt: “man, person”] represents the original, eternal person, the supreme being, one of the two forms of reality. The philosophy of Sankhya [one of the six doctrines of orthodox Hinduism] teaches that the creation of the universe resulted from the union of the absolute self of pure consciousness (purusha) and nature (prakriti), whose changes are witnessed by purusha. Essential to Sankhya, is the doctrine of evolution (parinamavada), which teaches that the effect exists latently within the cause and requires only a releasing factor to manifest itself. The undeveloped cause and the developed effect are apart of the same substance moving in cyclic rhythm. Every form of generation is developmental (evolution) [Skt: udbhava (to spring from)], while every form of destruction is re-enveloping (involution) [Skt: anudbhava (sinking back into the cause)]. (Shambhala)


According to the Vedanta [Sanskrit: “conclusion of the Vedas,” contained in the Upanishads; another of the six doctrines of Hinduism], purusha is interchangeable with atman, and hence brahma. The Vedanta-Sutra recognizes two perspectives of Brahman:


1)       Absolute impersonal intelligence (chinmatra) prior to manifestation of its primal energy (shakti)

2)       Personal god (savishesha)


Sacrifice through Union: Lord of Creatures (Prajapati)

The complexity of the cosmos was created after the Lord of Creatures (Prajapati) sacrificed himself. Prajapati is the embodiment of cosmic creation, the cosmic person (anthropocosm), tantamount to the transformational personality between the absolute consciousness of Purusha and the multiplicity of the nature (Prakriti). Prajapati [sim.Chinese: Pangu; (Hamilton, Daozhan)] is synonymously interchangeable with Brahma, Atma, and Manu.


The myth of Prajapati inspires the Vedic sacrificial rites, which are designed to invoke the divine order of Prajapati throughout the universe, hence reinforcing the integrity of the anthropocosm. The Vedic hymn, Purusha Sukta, details the transformation of the anthropocosm, Prajapati: his eyes became the sun, his mind the moon, his mouth became fire, his breath became the wind, his navel became air, his head became the sky, his feet became the earth, etc. In other words, the sacrifice of Prajapati created a multiplicity of microcosms, fragmented parts minutely reflecting the original singular whole. Desire causes the separation of unity through external expansion; creation through destruction [sim.Chinese: separation of pure and turbid to create Heaven and Earth; yang and yin]. (Contrastingly, unity is approached through internal contraction; destruction of the coarse to reveal the creation of the subtle).


Through the scope of humanity, a man (microcosmic Prajapati) sacrifices his semen into the fire of a woman to create a child, a new microcosm. Human sexual desire reflects a fragment of Purusha’s desire which caused the singular universe to spawn duality. Thus, experiential desire is the foundation of multiplicity (ie.macrocosm and microcosm), which is contained within each consecutively progressive part (eg. Prajapati, human being, atoms).


Duality defines two aspects of existential awareness: the original subtle energy (Purusha » prana) and the creation of coarse matter (Prakriti » ether), which are inherent in both the macrocosm and microcosm (eg.unconscious body, conscious mind).


Effectual Multiplicity of Manifestation: Separateness of Mother Nature (Prakriti) (see fig.4); (Shambhala), (Kshirsagar), (Ros), (Svoboda), (Feuerstein)

When desire disrupts the absolute consciousness (Purusha) to expand into the void, the matrix of myriad manifestations, nature (Prakriti), evolves. Prakriti [sim.Taoist: Mother Goddess (Doumu); (Hamilton, Daozhan)] is integral consciousness differing from Purusha only through separation, which is the foundation of all existence. According to Aghora Tantra, the ultimate personality of manifested existence is mother nature (Adishakti; Adya; Ma).


Nature (prakriti) contains three prime attributes (gunas) [sim.Taoist: three breaths (sanqi): mysterious (xuan), original (yuan), inceptive (shi); (Hamilton, Daozhan)] of perception for all living things: (see fig. 7)


1)       Purity (Sattva): subjective; knowledge, clarity

2)       Activity (Rajas): interactive; mobility, stimulus

3)       Inertia (Tamas): objective; ignorance, confusion


(see ‘Ahamkara’ below)


Undifferentiated Collective Consciousness: Cosmic Integrity (Mahat);

(Ros), (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)

When Prakriti becomes aware of its own existence (the tangible manifestation of integral multiplicity from the original singular intangibility, Purusha), it evolves into the transcendent state of undifferentiated consciousness, or the cosmic integrity (mahat). Through association with the original absolute, the integral cosmic intelligence (mahat) [sim.Taoist: true human (zhenren); son of heaven (tianzhu); (Hamilton, Daozhan)] then establishes individuality, or ego (ahamkara), which further differentiates itself. While mahat is the cosmic, or collective intelligence, buddhi is individual intelligence.


Personal Universe: Constitution (Prakriti); (see also ‘doshas‘ below);

(Ros), (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)

Due to the Vedic recognition of the anthropocosm, the idea of the manifested universe (prakriti) is used interchangeably with the individual’s personal universe (prakriti). In Ayurveda, the characteristic physical and mental constitution (prakriti) is distinguished from the current constitutional state (vikriti), which changes momentarily. The characteristic constitution (prakriti), fixed at the moment of conception, was determined by the conditions (ie.physical and mental; genetic) of the parents at the time of coitus. While an alteration to the prakriti requires a genetic change, variation to the vikriti, the secondary constitution, occurs after conception (ie.via conditions in the womb; lifestyle).


The common association of constitutional charateristics (ie.body temperature and structural frame ® metabolism, skin color ® filters vitD intake, musculature, perspiration, eye color ® variance of color absorbtion ® variance endocrine balance, etc.) with climate suggests that race is a constitutional (prakriti) condition (genetic) of a pertaining region.


The analysis of constitutional type evaluates the organism’s capacity to utilize energy and matter, and relates to the variance of the proportions in body measurement [ie.variance of cupped hands (anjali), arm span = body height, unit of measure relating to size of finger (angula)]. (Kshirsagar)


Eight Principle Constitution Types: (Kshirsagar)

There are infinite proportional combinations of the tri-dosha constitutional types, but the most common are bi-dosha combinations. In Ayurveda, the identification of personal prakriti enables the design of the appropriate medicinal lifestyle, thus facilitating the individual’s alignment with the cosmos; the establishment of the anthropocosm.


1)       Vata

2)       Pitta

3)       Kapha


4)       Vata-Pitta or Pitta-Vata

5)       Pitta-Kapha or Kapha-Pitta

6)       Vata-Kapha or Kapha-Vata


7)       Imbalance of Vata-Pitta-Kapha


8)       Balance of Vata-Pitta-Kapha


TRINITY WITHIN SELF: Process of Perception;

(Motoyama), (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)

According to the Yoga Upanishads (c.1000 BCE; more likely 6th c.CE), particularly the texts, Shri Jabala Darshana Upanishad, Cudamini Upanishad, Yoga-shikka Upanishad, and Shandilya Upanishad, the human being consists of three bodies which participated in primordial cosmology. According to the Cudamini Upanishad, Lord Brahman created the element ether, which sequentially generated the other elemental realms, air, fire, water, and earth, which are ruled by various deities, Shiva, Ishvara, Rudra, Vishnu, and Brahma, respectively. Brahman endowed the human being with three bodies, or cosmological levels pertaining to the sequence of creation [sim.Daoist: three treasures (sanbao); (Hamilton, Daozhan)]: (see fig.7);


1)       Causal Body (karanasharira): seed potential [sim.Christian: father]

·         Cosmological causes of individuality

·         Subtlest body (internal and external)

·         Stores past impressions (vasanas) in unmanifest forms

·         Pure self identification: sleeping consciousness

·         Causal energy trinity: vayu, agni, soma

·         Conscious Reality (kundalini): cosmic (consciousness): spiritual brain, brahma nadi, seven spiritual centers

[Three gunas exist in harmonious equilibrium]


2)       Subtle/Astral Body (sukshmasharira): [sim.Christian: holy spirit]

·         Energetic network composed of subtle elements: energy centers (chakra), meridians (nadi), and points (marma); bridge between causal and gross bodies

·         Subtle energy trinity (dosha essences): prana, tejas, ojas

·         Consists of 5 subtle senses

·         5 karmendriyas

·         5 pranas

·         4 aspects of mind (manas, ahamkara, buddhi, chitta)

·         No spatio-temporal limitations

·         Pure self identification: dreaming consciousness

·         Conscious Reality (kundalini):  energetic/psychic (metaphysical): crown energy center (sahasrara chakra), central channel (sushumna nadi, vajra nadi, chittra nadi), 7 energy centers (chakras)


3)       Gross Body (sthulasharira): [sim.Christian: son]

·         Matter composed of the physical elements (five elements)

·         Physical trinity (three doshas): vata, pitta, kapha

·         Spatio-temporal limitations

·         Pure self identification: waking consciousness

·         Conscious Reality (kundalini): organic (physical): brain, spine, nerve plexus

[Three guna are imbalanced: dynamic interaction]


(See also ‘Five Envelopes’ below.)


The human body is considered the abode of Lord Shiva.


Differentiated Individuality: Ego (Ahamkara) in the Process of Perception;

(Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)

Ego (ahamkara) [Skt: “I-creator”], the sense of individuality in the self, establishes separateness from the unity of life. However, life cannot exist without ahamkara because it unifies the diversity of parts within the organism, which maintains separateness from the original unity. The first syllables of ahamkara, ‘aham,’ are derived from ‘a’ and ‘ha,’ the first and last letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, thus representing the totality of all potential manifestation.


The individual ego (ahamkara) differentiates itself through a process of perception, which consists of three interdependent positions (gunas) inherent to nature (prakiriti): subject (sattva ahamkara), interaction (rajas ahamkara), object (tamas ahamkara). The attributes of ahamkara represent the trinity, or interactive duality [sim.Taoist/TCM: three treasures (sanbao): essence (jing), energy (qi), spirit (shen); (Cleary)].


1)       Equilibrium (sattva): archetypal subject; ego as consciousness is subjective perception and manipulation of matter and energy; subjectivity evolves into the thinking mind and the ten senses (ie.5 cognitive, 5 active)


a)       Five Cognitive/Passive (Pancha dyanendriyani/jnanendriyas): Reception

i)         Hearing

ii)       Touch

iii)      Sight

iv)      Taste

v)        Smell


b)       Active/Aggressive (Pancha karmendriyani): Expression

i)         Speech: communication

ii)       Hands: creativity

iii)      Feet: locomotion

iv)      Genitals: reproduction

v)        Anus: elimination


2)       Activity (rajas): ectypal; action; interpretation; ego as action which moves in waves of kinetic energy to connect objective (tamas) with subjective (sattva)


3)       Inertia (tamas): typal object; ego as unconsciousness which stagnates into objective particles of potential energy (matter); objectivity evolves into five sensorial objects (tanmatras) which evolve into the five great elements (mahabhuta) of the physical universe


i)         Sound (shabda) ® Ether

ii)       Touch (sparsha) ® Air

iii)      Vision (rupa) ® Fire

iv)      Taste (rasa) ® Water

v)        Smell (gandha)® Earth


The embodiment of life is defined as the simultaneous functioning of all the components of consciousness: five elements (tamas; mahabhuta) [sim. Chinese: will power (zhi)], five cognitive senses (sattva) and their objects (tamas), five active senses (sattva), the thinking mind (sattva) [sim. Chinese: spirit (shen)], the ego and intellect (ahamkara) [sim. Chinese: intellect/intention (yi)], the individual soul, or fragment of nature (prakriti) [sim. Chinese: corporeal soul (po)], and the fragment of the cosmic collective soul (purusha) [sim. Chinese: ethereal soul (hun)].


The universe exists because it is perceived. Therefore, the universe (eg.physical) is influenced by thought (eg.mental).


Mind (Manasa): (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar)

Activity (rajas) projects through the mind (manasa), which formulates thought and emotion, and connects with the internal and external realms through the three attribute functions of nature. The functional attributes have the power to correct dysfunction.


Powers of Mind:

1)       Knowing/Intellect (sensory awareness; judgment) (Dhi): function of sattva

2)       Motivation/Patience (Dhruti): function of rajas

3)       Memory Awareness (Smriti): function of tamas


“Mistaken intellect,” or “crimes against wisdom” (pragyaparadh), occurs when one or more of the powers of mind are violated, hence becoming imbalanced to a degree where dysfunction occurs. Balanced powers of mind can be achieved by exercising afterthought before forethought (Gnostic strategy) in a process of self psycho-analysis.


Process of training the mind to change bad habits:

1)       Past experience (chintya): remembering the effects of past actions

2)       Present situation (vicharya): serious thought about making a decision; firming up decision; reinforcing decision with correctness

3)       Future event (uhaya): analysis of decision; correct program

4)       Correct decision (dhyeya)

5)       Change in action (sankalpya)


The human being is founded on three pillars, mind (sattva), soul (atma), and the physical body (sharir). The soul and the body depend on the mind. The four states of mind (see ‘Model of Existence’ above).


PENTOLOGY OF MATTER: Five Great Elements (Pancha Mahabhuta)

(Motoyama), (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)


Physical Objectivity: Five Great Elements (Pancha Mahabhuta); (see fig. 9)

All phenomena can be classified into one of the five great elements (pancha mahabhuta) [sim.Taoist/TCM: five elements (wuxing); (Hamilton)] based on its predominant energetic phase. The five elements are not static representations of energy, but rather dynamic phases of energetic transformation.


1)       Ether/Space (akasa): lack of density; space for existing; space between astral and physical planes; [sim. TCM: wood]

2)       Air (vayu): gas; expansion; [sim. TCM: metal]

3)       Fire (teja): reactive factor; transformation

4)       Water (jala/aap): liquid; cohesion

5)       Earth (prithvi): solid; foundation


Elemental Cosmology: (Ros)

In cosmic creation, the intangible became tangible through the materialization of energy, or the solidification of space. The combination of energy (prana) [+] and ether (akasha) [-] created movement; space became a conduit for energy. The action of movement, wind/air (vayu), caused friction, which produced heat and fire (teja). [Embedded within the word prana is “an,” meaning to breath, suggesting how prana is acted upon; possible root in Sumerian: Ruler of Heaven (An). (Sitchin)] The fire (teja) then melted particles causing liquid/water (jala) to flow. The combination of water and matter formed the solidification of earth (prithvi); thus accomplishing the materialization of energy. Energy (prana) has been considered as the sixth element, because it is responsible for the formation of the embryo, which is rthe receptacle (universe; anthropocosm) of the five elements [sim.TCM: Heaven creating Earth].


Elemental Correspondence with the Process of Conception: (Ros)

1)       Energy (prana): male



2)       Ether/Space (akasa): female

3)       Wind/Air (vayu): coitus (movement)

4)       Fire (teja): orgasm (friction)

5)       Water (jala): ejaculation of semen (liquification)

6)       Earth (prithvi): conception of zygote (solidification)


Ten Qualities of Duality (Guna Dvandva): Twenty Attributes (Tattva Guna); (Ros), (Kshirsagar)

Ayurveda recognizes ten important pairs of basic opposing yet interdependent qualities of duality (guna dvandva) [sim.TCM: yin and yang oppsing qualities] which define a continuum of activity within an organism. The duality of forces originated as a result of the interaction of life force (prana) [Purusha] with the ether (akasa) matrix/field [Prakriti]; [analogy: creative idea and canvas]. Eventhough energy (prana) and matter (eg.akasa) are opposte forms of the primordial/original energy, both forms depend on each other for the creation of life; energy (prana) depends on akasa for organic manifestion, and akasa depends on prana for animation. Because all opposing qualities are associated with the five elements, as well as the three humors (doshas), or by-products of five elements, all phenomena take on predominant characteristics of opposing qualities.




Qualities (Guna)



Light (laghu)


Heavy (guru)



Hot (ushna)


Cold (sita)



Dry (ruksa)


Oily (snigdha)



Quick/Sharp (tiksna)


Slow/Dull (manda)



Dynamic (sara/chala)


Static (sthira)



Soft (mrdu)


Hard (kathina)



Clear (vishada)


Turbid (picchila)



Rough (khara)


Smooth (slakshna)



Subtle (suksma)


Gross (sthula)



Liquid (drava)


Solid (sandra)


Other Dualities


Right: Pingala

Sun (Surya); (+); Male; Warm (Pitta); Dys.: Acid

Left: Ida

Moon (Chandra); (-); Female; Cool (Vata/Kapha); Dys.: Alkaline


Interrelationships: Laws of Movement (Maciocia 17-28), (Ros); (see fig. 9)

Ayurveda examines four sequences, or wheels (chakra), of elemental interrelationships.


1)       Wheel of Creation (Nirmana Chakra): cosmic creation from most subtle to most physical

a)       Element Cycle: energy (prana) combined with® ether (matter) caused® air (movement) caused® fire (friction) melted particles causing® water (liquid) combined with matter fo form® earth (solid); [alternate.TCM: insulting cycle]

b)       Humor Cycle: vata ® pitta ® kapha


2)       Wheel of Destruction (Vinasha Chakra): three stages of life; returning to the subtle through the process of decay (instigated by the more subtle element) [sim.TCM: controlling cycle]

a)       Element Cycle: earth (solid) is loosened by® water (liquid) is evaporated by® fire (friction) is blown out by® air (movement) is overheated by® ether (matter/light) is cooled/shaded by® earth

b)       Humor Cycle: kapha ® pitta ® vata

c)       Three Stages of Life: (each stage increases in dysfunction possibility by a power of one)

i)         Kapha Stage: childhood to adolescent (1-14 years): respiratory dysfunction

ii)       Pitta Stage: adolescent to adulthood (15-45 years): digestive dysfunction

iii)      Vata Stage: middle age to old age (45+ years): degenerative (dryness) (ie.osteoporosis, wrinkles, dry skin)


iv)      Dysfunction Ratio: Vata (23=8): Pitta (22=4): Kapha (21=2); (highest probability for dysfunction is through vata)

v)        Dysfunction process: Vata (acute; mild) ® Kapha (chronic; serious)

vi)      Destruction Cycle is utilized in Tantra to transcend the mundane and attain nirvana  (Mahanirvana Tantra)


3)       Wheel of Control (Vinaya Chakra): regulates the interrelationship through checking

             a)      Related to metabolism (pitta)

             b)      Element Cycle: ether ® earth ® water ® fire ® air ® ether; [sim.TCM: controlling (ke) cycle]


4)       Wheel of Support (Alamba Chakra): supports interrelationship through nourishment

a)       Element Cycle: air ® water ® ether ® fire ® earth; [sim.TCM: creation (sheng) cycle]

b)       Humor Cycle: vata ® pitta ® kapha [sim.Ayurvedic: Creation Cycle]

c)       Tissue Cycle (Dhatu Chakra): fire (plasma®blood) ® earth (muscle®fat) ® air (bone) ® water (marrow) ® ether (semen)


Mountain Analogy: (Ros)

A mountain is predominantly the earth element, but also possessing the other elements as latent qualities. When a rock (earth) from a mountain is heated (fire), it will eventually liquefy (water). In the continuance of applied heat, the liquid will boil and produce steam (air). All of the energetic phase transformation is occurring within space (ether).


Ether resembles the vacuum medium where matter was created and resolves. Ether is paradoxical; existing as the creative yet repository source of the elements, and non-existing through elemental non-interaction. Sound is the chief quality of ether, which receives the full spectrum of vibratory frequency (ie.subsound, audible sound, infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet, microwave, x-ray, gamma ray, cosmic radiation; only low frequency vibration can pass through earth).



The human being is the assemblage of the tangible five great elements [hardness (earth), moisture (water), heat (fire), vital breath (air), interstices (ether)] and the intangible spirit. (Charaka)


The 12 organs and meridians are paired in elemental designation.


Elemental Interactions between Macrocosm and Microcosm: Law of Similarity and Difference

The objectivity of the five elements is significant because of the subjective interaction of the individual containing them. The microcosmic organism (eg.human body) and the macrocosmic environment (cosmos) are striving for the balance of mutual interdependence through the selective exchange of matter and energy. The selective exchange of energy is more precisely regulated at the local level of the individual part because of its proportionally greater dependence, due to its lesser size, on the surrounding environmental whole. There are three possible effects of the exchange:


1)       Nourishment (food)

2)       Balance (medicine)


3)       Disturbance (poison)



1)       Earth: stability/petrification

2)       Water: juicy/sticky

3)       Fire: clarity/manipulative

4)       Air: vigor/exhaustion

5)       Ether: illuminated quietude/ache emptiness


The interaction of the microcosmic organism and the macrocosmic environment is governed by the law of similarity and difference. The law is simple: similarity combines to cause increase, while difference differentiates to cause decrease (Charaka: Law of Like and Unlike as quoted in Svoboda) [sim.TCM: law of tonification and sedation].


Five Envelopes of Consciousness (Pancha Kosa): Elemental Incarnation of Consciousness

(Ros), (Feuerstein), (Kshirsagar)

The human being is composed of five envelopes/sheaths of consciousness which increase in a material density as it progresses in depth to the exterior, and so named for their composition. Atma Purusha is covered by the five sheaths (kosas), but remains untouched. During the incarnation of consciousness into life, the subtle envelopes become a generational template of expression for the coarse envelopes. While Vedic (esoteric) anatomy and the Tantras recognizes five envelopes [sim.TCM: spiritual resources of the viscera (zang-fu)], the practice of Ayurveda focuses primarily on the three coarsest (ie.anna, prana, mano), with most emphasis on the most coarse level (anna). [Note: According to the Vedic sciences, in the process of spiritual enlightenment, or the development of self-awareness, the adept attempts to return to the realization of the source of creation by opening consecutive internally progressing envelopes from coarse (earth) to subtle (ether); progressing towards death/pre-birth; sim.Buddhist stupa]. According to the Siddha-Siddhanta-Paddhati, the sheaths of the subtle body consist of six spheres (pinda), which progress from the primordial body (adya pinda) to the embryonic body (garbha pinda), and all being manifestations of divine power (shakti).


Five Envelopes: (from subtle to coarse; inner to outer); (see fig. 9, 11-12)

Causal (karanasharira) Body:

1)       Bliss (ananda): ether; tantamount to the transcendental self (atman) which sheaths the ultimate reality; (not to be confused with emotional bliss)


Energetic/Astral (sukshmasharira) Body:

2)       Wisdom/Knowledge (vijnana/ gyana): metal; the intelligent (higher) mind (buddhi), the seat of wisdom, discerns between reality and illusion in order to invoke certainty, faith and lucid stillness due to its predominance of sattva guna

3)       Mind-Emotion (mano): fire; emotional mind; lower functions of the mind (sensory stimulus reception); the mind (manas) driven by desire and doubt, which often causes uncertainty, struggles to externalize consiousness versus withdrawing it into imagination; this movement of consciousness is governed by the factor of inertia (tamas) and dynamism (rajas)

4)       Energy/Breath (prana): water; composed of life force, which connects the physical body to the mind; physiological functions (5 vayus)


Gross/Physical (sthulasharira) Body:

5)       Food (anna): earth; familiar physical body which navigates in the material realm; organs


According to Ayurveda, a particular envelope of consciousness is nourished, becomes imbalanced, and healed, most directly through the same envelope.


1)       Anna kosa: treated by herbs and diet

2)       Prana kosa: treated by: [sim.TCM: interaction of metal organs of lung and large intestine]

             a)      Instantly: breathing (absorbing prana from air) [sim.TCM: clean air energy (qing qi)]

             b)      Delayed: digestion (absorbing prana through colon) [sim.TCM: grain energy (gu qi)]

3)       Mano kosa: treated by words, images, and emotions


However, because the prana kosa (energy) (in which this text primarily focuses on) acts as an intermediary conduit between the anna kosa (body/essence/energy) and mano kosa (mind/spirit), enabling their simultaneous operations, all three envelopes can be treated through the prana kosa alone. [sim.TCM: three treasures (sanbao): essence (jing), energy (qi), spirit (shen)].


Each coarse sheath/envelope of consciousness (ie.anna, prana, mano) has a predominant individual (ahamkara) differentiation, or interdependent perceptual position (gunas), which influences consciousness.


1)       Inertia (tamas) stabilizes consciousness through anna kosa

2)       Dynamism (rajas) activates consciousness through prana kosa

3)       Luminosity (sattva) preserves equilibrium of consciousness through mano kosa


The degree of attention given to a particular envelope, or the quantity of guna, directly relates to the condition of the pertaining envelope, and consequentially consciousness as a whole. Also, the cultivation, or treatment, of the various envelopes should follow a sequence from coarse to subtle, in order to provide the potential support required for energetic phase change. Too much attention on anna kosa (physical body) obstructs tamas creating stubbornness, while too little creates instability. Similarly, the degree of attention to prana kosa affects the quantity of activity. Only through disciplined training (ie.meditation; balancing anna and prana), can the ahamkara fix awareness consistently on mano kosa (mind), where sattva predominates to preserve the equilibrium of consciousness through mediation; otherwise the awareness remains captive within the duality between the curtains of tamas (orthodox stability) and the storms of rajas (innovative change). According to Tantra, the cultivation of anna kosa (eg.Ayurveda) and prana kosa (eg.Hatha Yoga) is required in order to provide the proper stability to the mano kosa (mind).


Metaphysics of Consciousness: Chakra Projections

In Hindu metaphysics (mythology), each polyhedron was symbolic of envelopes of consciousness, which were believed to interact with the physical body of man, who is the reenactment of the cosmic history. The whole material coagulation begins with the F seed, the fire spirit (triangulation of form into polyhedral volumes), of the supreme creator, Brahma, analogous to Atum.


Purusha, the cosmic man, is associated with the icosahedron as the seed (bindu) image of Brahma. The icosahedron is the first form that all other forms arise naturally from. It represents the unmanifested potential correlating to the potential wisdom (prana) within the Great Void (sunya). The icosahedron is the only polyhedron that doesn’t touch other polyhedra.


Prakriti, the dodecahedron, represents the feminine power of creation and manifestation (touching all other generated polyhedra). Since the dodecahedron is made up of 12 pentagonal faces, it represents the quintessence of the natural universe; power (shakti).


At the envelope of the natural world, with the star tetrahedron and the octahedron, it is the Ö2, which is active. The cube (earthly manifestation of unity) of matter is structurally stabilized by the star tetrahedron, which represents the duality within unity. The octahedron, the heart of the cosmic solid, represents the crystallization of matter, which has the clarity of a diamond. 






POLYHEDRA GENERATION (Wheel of Creation; Sequence from Causal to Material) [TCM: Insulting Sequence]












Vector Length



1 Icosahedron










Meditative Union






2 Octahedron







Innate Know-ledge by Identity






3 Tetrahedron






Pure Reason








4 Dodecahedron





Intuitive Mental Faculty






5 Cube






Instinctual Mind






1 Icosahedron (outer)



Ultimate Perfection of Body in its Physical Manifestation







* = consciousness

T = transpersonal

I = individual


The last column (Vector Length) is dependent on the radius of the original circle and its division by F.



Each envelope or body of consciousness of the human individual interpenetrates or encompasses the following one. The envelopes progress from inner to outer in descending order, while the inner is a reflection of the outer (repeating the cycle of creation). The creation sequence, from heaven to earth, is expressed in the descending volumes of the stupa. The first envelope is the causal body (karana sarira); the second through fourth envelopes (vijnana, mano, and prana) consist of the ethereal /subtle body (linga/sukshma sarira) and the fifth envelope (anna) is the gross material body (sthula sarira).


Toxicity of the Five Great Elements: Three Humors (Tri-Doshas);

(Ros), (Svoboda), (Kshirsagar)

The singularity of nature (prakriti) extends to every individual’s body constitution (prakriti), or model for health, which is a specific combination of the three humors (tri-doshas) at conception. The deviation from the unique proportion of the three humors established at conception (disharmonious with nature) creates dysfunctional scenario within body constitution (vikriti).


An impurity which prevents the sacrificial practice to produce the desired effect of health is a dysfunction [Skt.: dus = dys: root of dosha], or transgression against the rhythm of nature, an inaccuracy which fails the success of the anthropocosm conduit, and consequently the decline of order. Many transgressions (dosha) can afflict a macrocosmic sacrifice (ie.ancestor dosha, evil spirit dosha, black magic dosha) all of which are invoked by a malefic planet dosha due to karma dosha. (see ‘Cause and Effect’ above)


The embodiment of life, or the existence of microcosm, requires its innate-acquired possession of the three karmic doshas [sim.Taoist: three worms (sanchung)], waste byproducts of the five great elements (mahabhuta), which vary by predominance per individual.


1)       Ether + Air Þ Vata

2)       Fire + Water Þ Pitta

3)       Water + Earth Þ Kapha


Similar to all other myriad manifestations of cosmic integrity, the three doshas are innately intangible moving via their tangible counterpart substances, which Hippocratic medicine has defined as wind, bile, and phlegm, respectively.


From a karmic perspective, doshas are spirits of the individual, varying in elemental phase predominance according to the individual’s location on the journey of elemental refinement, or spiritual evolution. The ultimate goal of the human spirit is to transcend the karmic cycle into a realm without elements or doshas (ie.physical organic wrappers).


The doshas, primarily associated with an energy center (chakra) [sim.Taoist: dantian; (Hamilton)] of corresponding element, maintain balanced harmony between microcosm and macrocosm (wellness) through their continuous fluidity of permeating movement (eg.elimination of wastes). The most light and dynamic dosha (vata) predominates in the lower center (navel: svadishthana chakra) (hypogastrium). The most heavy and static dosha (kapha) predominates in the higher center (heart: anahata chakra) (chest). The mediator and transformer dosha (pitta) predominates in the middle region (solar plexus: manipura chakra) (epigastrium). The juxtaposed arrangement of predominant dosha locations reinforce the connection between the intangible and the tangible (ie.energy and matter) [sim.Chinese: Heaven and Earth] within the human body (receptacle) to approach the anthropocosm. 


Attributes of Three Humors (Tri-Doshas):

The qualities of the three doshas express the process of life.


1)       Vata ® movement [kinetic; function]; (eg.action, thought)

2)       Pitta ® transformation [kinetic«potential; catalyst]; (eg.digestion, metabolism, interpretation)

3)       Kapha ® stability [potential; fuel] (eg.construction, lubrication, nourishment, cohesion)







English Translation

“one that gives energy”

“one that heats, or produces heat”

“one that connects, or adheres”

Elemental Combination

Ether + Air

Fire + Water

Water + Earth

Primary Element




Non-reactive (Raw) Essence (Treasure)

Energy (Prana/Vayu)

Spirit/Life Fire (Tejas/Agni)

Vitality/Essence (Ojas/Soma)

Qualitative Expression




Physical Vehicle (Hippocratic)




Waste Vehicle




Energy Center




Region of Influence




Organ Store Houses

Brain, nervous system, heart, colon, bone, lungs, bladder, pelvis, thighs, ears, skin

Brain, liver, spleen, small intestine, endocrine glands, skin, eyes, blood, sweat

Brain, joints, mouth, head, neck, stomach, lymph, thorax, fat

Physiological Function





Assimilation, elimination



Mental Activity                    

Memory, movement of thought process

Cognition, perception, interpretation, discrimination

Coherent, focus, concentration

Emotion Disturbance

Fear, anxiety

Anger, envy

Obsession, greed

Physiological Dysfunction



Weakness, emaciation, dryness, flatulence, constipation, various pains, insomnia, tremors and tics, giddiness, impaired sensory-motor skills

Anger, acidity, fever, burning sensations, jaundice, diminished sleep, excessive hunger and thirst

Stagnation: excess mucus, indigestion, lethargy, cough, nausea



Reduces all bodily activities, indigestion, aches and pains, nausea, lost of taste, depression, trouble making decisions, cold extremities

Coldness, lack of vigor, stiffness, pallor, weakened digestion

Weakness, dryness, body ache, palpitations, insomnia


Wind: dryness and heat

Location: Large Intestine

Provoked: midnight, midday

Bile: sharpness, lightness, oiliness

Location: Small Intestine

Provoked: morning, evening

Phlegm: cold, dampness, heaviness, dullness

Location: Stomach

Provoked: afternoon, early morning



Provoked: early morning, afternoon


Provoked: midday, midnight

Heaviness, heat

Provoked: morning, evening


Heat and wetness

Provoked: morning, evening

Cold, slowness, dullness

Provoked: afternoon, early morning

Heat, dryness, lightness

Alleviated: midday, midnight


Derivative Essence (Treasure)



Spirit/Life Fire


Vitality/Essence (Ojas/Soma)

Combining Function

Breathing Strategy




Immunity [Longevity]

Adaptability [Happiness]

Vitality [Prosperity]












Slightly oily














Constituional (Prakriti)

Body Frame

Thin, irregular

Medium, usually proportionate

Broad, heavy, well proportionate


Easy to lose, hard to gain

Easy to lose, easy to gain

Hard to lose, easy to gain


Dark or tans deeply, often cold to touch

Light, sunburns easily,  freckles, moles, wrinkles easily, warm to touch

Medium shade, tans easily, cool to touch


Scanty, even in heat

Profuse in heat

Moderate, consistent


Dry, coarse, curly, often dark

Fine, often straight, light color, may be oily, tends to go gray or bald early

Oily, lustrous, thick, usually brown

Eye Color

Gray, violet, slate blue

Hazel, green, light or electric blue

Brown, occasionally blue






Erratic, often constipated

Usually regular, sometimes loose

Regular, slow


Internal Climate








Prefers warm

Prefers cool

Enjoys changes of seasons


Poor, tends to overexert

Medium, overexerts when competing

Good, tends to under exert

Channel Aperature Tendency


Fluctuate between dilation and constriction;

Retains little energy and matter


Manages energy and matter well


Retains much energy and matter

Energetic Tendency






Quick, imaginative, diverse

Efficient, precise, orderly, love to eat, and compete, perfectionist, sacrifice for success, disciplined, courageous or angry (esp.when hungry), leadership

Slow, relaxed, emotional, introverted, enjoys collecting wealth

Gait (Gati); Trait




Sex Drive


Often intense







Variable, often poor, deep when tired

Sleeps easily, rises easily

Sleeps easily, rises with difficulty


Talkative, may ramble

Speaks purposefully

Slow, cautious


Fear often primary

Often afflicted w/anger

Likes to avoid confrontation


Usually verbal

Lots of visual imagery

Frequent use of feelings, emotions


Learns quickly, forgets quickly

Learns quickly, forgets slowly

Learns slowly forgets slowly


Physiological Relationships of the Three Humors: (Ros), (Kshirsagar)

The three humors relate with physiology through their elemental correspondences with anatomical regions. Each element has a humoral influence on the physiological functions.













Energy (Prana) Movement

Inward Controlling



Diffusion/ Distribution

Downward; Stability

10 Energies (Pranas)



5 Major Energies (Prana): Region; Function


“vital force”



Sensory perception,

Throat-Diaphragm: respiration,



“breath out”



Head/Four Limbs: governs 5 senses and brain


“moving evenly”



Epigastric: digestion


“moving outward”



Entire Body: facilitates smooth flow of energy


“downward and outward”



Hypogastric: elimination (LI, K, UB, genitals, anus)

5 Minor Energies (Upa Prana): Region:

skin, bones

Function: supplements major 5

Naga: controls salivation and hiccupping; spitting

Kurma: opens eyes, controls blinking

Krkara: causes sneezing, creates sensation of hunger

Dhanamjaya: pervades entire body; does not leave corpse


Devadatta: controls yawning and sleeping

(A)natomy: Functions


Brain: swallowing, belching, inhalation, sneezing

Lung/Chest/Throat: exhalation, speech; belching, coughing, vomiting

SI: digestion

H/body: joints, muscles; cooridination (esp.legs)

LI: elimination, urination, sex, menstruation

Channels (Nadi):








(P)oints (Marma):








(A)natomy: Functions


Brain/H: imagination

Eyes: vision

SI: digestion, circulation

Skin: color, complexion, temperature

Lv/Sp/S/SI: secretions (eg.bile, stool, urine)

Channels (Nadi):







(P)oints (Marma):








(A)natomy: Functions


Brain/H: concentration, recollection

Mouth/tongue: taste, respiration

SI: first stage of digestion (S)


H/L: lubrication of chest (eg.mucus, plasma)

Channels (Nadi):







(P)oints (Marma):










Vata (Vayu)





(“vital force”)


(“achieve fullfillment”)


(“to nourish”)



(“move upward”)


(“to see completely”)


(“to know, understand”)



(“moving evenly”)


(“to cook, digest, transform”)


(“to moisten”)



(“moving outward”)


(“to radiate, or shine”)


(“to bind or join”)



(“moving downward and outward”)


(“to dye or color”)


(“to support”)

ana = moving

aka = bringing to completion


Energetic Humor Essence: Dosha Connection with Prana Kosa (Prana, Tejas, Ojas);

(Ros), (Kshirsagar)

Each dosha is a reactive form of a grosser essence. In optimal health, the doshas are produced in proper quantity due to their essences being efficiently absorbed, while in illness the doshas are at improper quantities (ie.deficient, excess).


1)       Energy (Prana) ® Vata; life force

2)       Spirit (Tejas/Agni) ® Pitta; inner radiance

3)       Vitality (Ojas/Soma) ® Kapha; primal vigor, vital energy reserves


While Ayurveda medicine (exoteric) is concerned with the physical health of common people by focusing primarily on the doshas (ie.vata, pitta, kapha) of the physical/food body (anna kosa), Vedic medicine and Tantra (esoteric) is concerned with the spiritual enlightenment of the saint by focusing primarily on the dosha essences (ie.prana, tejas, ojas) [sim.Taoist: three treasures (sanbao); (Hamilton)] of the energetic body (prana kosa). In other words, the medical system varies according to the individual’s karmic condition, spiritual progress, constitution, and lifestyle.


SUBTLE ANATOMY (SUKSHMASHARIRA): Envelope of Energy (Prana kosa)

(see ‘Subtle Anatomy’ section)



GROSS ANATOMY (STHULASHARIRA): Envelope of Food (Anna kosa); (Ros), (Kshirsagar)

Even though Ayurveda recognizes many particular anatomical organs, the interaction between particular organs to establish an organized whole system takes precedence of perspective. The Ayurveda idea of an organ extends beyond the physical into the metaphysical. (eg. Ayurveda recognizes the heart as being responsible for blood circulation and vata, as well as being the seat of the mind and consciousness [sim.TCM: heart and shen], while the head is the residence of the sense organs.)


Tri-Dosha Influence on Food Envelope (Anna kosa): (Ros), (Kshirsagar)

Ayurveda assesses the condition of the organs through the evaluation of the three doshas, which pervade all cells in the body, but concentrate influence according to their particular region of predominance.


Predominant Region of Influence:

1)       Vata: hypogastrium; counteracts gravity in order to facilitate circulation of blood, lymph, and wastes

2)       Kapha: thorax; stabilizes the strong ascending movement of vata; lubrication (ie.lungs, heart)

3)       Pitta: epigastrium; mediator between vata and kapha


Functional Aspects: Each dosha has five various functional aspects (sub-doshas)

1)       Kapha: lubrication; manifests as lubricants (ie.stomach mucus, pleural and pericardial fluid, saliva, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid)

i)         Tarpaka kapha (“to nourish”):

a)       Location: brain, spinal cord, heart

b)       Action: regulates, protects, and nourishes neural tissue; lubricates brain cells; cushions against injury

c)       Imbalance: dull mind, slow learning or cognition

ii)       Bodhaka kapha (“to know, to understand”)

a)       Location: mouth, tongue, salivary glands

b)       Action: moisturize mouth, taste, salivation, lubricates mucus membranes, immunes system, emotional sensitivity

c)       Imbalance: mouth and taste problems

iii)      Avalambaka kapha (“supporting”):

a)       Location: thoracic cavity, lungs, pleural cavity, pericardium, bronchi

b)       Action: nourishes lungs, spreads compassion to all organs

c)       Imbalance: respiratory problems

iv)      Kledaka kapha (“to moisten”):

a)       Location: upper stomach

b)       Action: moistens food for digestion, peristalsis, protects stomach lining (alkaline secretion for stomach)

c)       Imbalance: GI disorders

v)        Shleshaka kapha (“to bind together”):

a)       Location: joints

b)       Action: lubricates joints and skin, provides nourishment to bones, ligaments, cartilage, shock absorber

c)       Imbalance: arthritis, edema, swelling in joints


2)       Pitta [aka.fire (agni)]: transformation; manifests as transformative substances (ie.digestive juices, hemoglobin, melanin, rhodospin, various neurotransmitters)

i)         Sadhaka pitta (“achieve fulfillment”):

a)       Location: brain and heart

b)       Movement: from heart to brain

c)       Action: digestion of thoughts (ie.discrimination, perception, cognition, learning, understanding, desire, ambition, determination); moves in the heart as compassion

d)       Imbalance: control issues, anger, selfishness, indecision, confusion, distortion

ii)       Alochaka pitta (“to see completely”):

a)       Location: eyes

b)       Action: facilitates vision; gives clarity of understanding

c)       Imbalance: vision problems

iii)      Pachaka pitta (“to cook, digest, transform”)

a)       Location: small intestine, lower stomach

b)       Action: creates hunger and thirst (water- liquefies food; fire- cooks food); digests sour, pungent, and bitter food; moves and separates food through GI (w/samana vayu)

c)       Imbalance: GI disorders

iv)      Bhrajaka pitta (“radiate and shine”):

a)       Location: skin

b)       Action: regulates skin color and luster; maintains body temperature; controls perspiration; absorbs solar rays; barrier between exterior and interior

c)       Imbalance: skin problems

v)        Ranjaka pitta (“dye or color”):

a)       Location: liver, spleen, small intestine

b)       Action: gives color to blood, urine, and feces

c)       Imbalance: jaundice, anemia, leukemia, hemorrhaging


3)       Vata/Vayu: movement (ana); divides the body into fields of influence; derived from prana [sim.TCM: five functions of qi: promoting, warming, defending, checking, nourishing]

i)         Prana vayu (“vital breath;” “forward air;” “inward breath”):

a)       Location: extends from diaphragm to throat (ie.brain, lungs, heart, throat, tongue, mouth)

b)       Movement: outward to inward

c)       Action: extracts energy from ingested food, water, and air [sim.TCM: nourishing]; sensory perception; respiration; cognition

d)       Imbalance: weakened senses

ii)       Udana vayu (“ascending air”):

a)       Location: extends from throat to vertex of head (ie.chest, diaphragm, heart, lungs, throat, brain)

b)       Movement: upward

c)       Action: regulates self-expression (ie.speech, endeavor, enthusiasm, memory, vitality, complexion); exhalation [sim.TCM: defending]; assists coughing, spitting, and vomiting (cleansing through mouth)

d)       Imbalance: stuttering, difficulty exhaling, indecisive, difficulty responding

iii)      Samana vayu (“equalizing air”):

a)       Location: extends from diaphragm to navel (stomach, small intestine, large intestine)

b)       Movement: from periphery to center

c)       Action: regulates digestive assimilation (ie.kindles agni, separates nutrients from waste in food essence, absorbs nutrients, maintains peristalsis, controls secretion of digestive enzymes, converts food intelligence into self consciousness); keeps apana vayu in balance [sim.TCM: warming]; governs manipura chakra

d)       Imbalance: GI problems; malabsorption, diarrhea, constipation, indigestion

iv)      Vyana vayu (“pervasive air;” “through breath”):

a)       Location: pervades entire body from its seat in the heart

b)       Movement: center to periphery

c)       Action: seat of consciousness and life; circulates blood, fluids; facilitates mobility and perspiration [sim.TCM: promoting]; governs anahata chakra

d)       Imbalance: cardiovascular problems

v)        Apana vayu (“descending air;” “outward breath):

a)       Location: operates from navel to anus (ie.colon, pelvis)

b)       Movement: downward

c)       Action: regulates excretion of matter (ie.feces, urination, gas, semen, menstrual blood, fetus) [sim.TCM: checking]; absorbs nutrients; assists conception; nourishes other vayus; governs muladhara and svadhistana chakras

d)       Imbalance: GI disorders, uro-genito disorders, reproductive disorders


Energy Transformation (Agni): Heating Energy (Fire) of Pitta; (Kshirsagar)

The body requires fire (agni) for transformation, digestion, balanced metabolism, and life. Agni resides in Pitta as its heating energy. Both have qualities of hot, light, subtle, and sharp, but Agni is dry while pitta is moist. Elementally, agni is fire, while pitta is fire and water.



¤      Digests food

¤      Nourishes doshas

¤      Nourishes dhatus: creates ojas, tejas, and prana (subtle doshas)

¤      Separates pure (sara) from waste (kitta: gross waste; mala: tissue waste)

¤      Clears mind

¤      Maintains life


Types: (13)

¤      (1) Stomach (Jatharagni) and Small Intestine (Koshthagni): considered pachaka pitta, which all the other agnis depend on

¤      (5) Elemental (Bhutagni): after digestion and absorption, samana vayu carries the purity (sara) of digested food (ahara rasa) to the liver, where bhutagni further breaks it down, in order to provide nourishment for the dhatus and sense organs

¤      (7) Tissue (Dhatu agni): absorbs elemental purity (sara; panchamahabhuta) from ahara rasa which nourishes the dhatus and removes impure wastes (kitta/mala)









Sama: balanced



Vishama: irregular; creates excess water waste, or undigested food (ama)



Tikshna: excess



Manda: deficient; creates excess water waste or undigested food (ama)



Stages of Digestion (Avasthapaka):

1)       Sweet (Madhura): Kapha Stage

a)       Location: mouth and upper stomach

b)       Guides: bodhaka and kledaka kapha

c)       Quality: heavy, alkaline

d)       Description: food mixes w/kledaka kapha to become more liquid and moist, and digested by pachaka pitta

e)       Sensation: heaviness, lethargy

f)         Digested elements: earth, water

g)       Excessive sweet, salty, cold: obesity, weight gain


2)   Sour (Amla): Pitta Stage

a)       Location: occurs in lower stomach and small intestine

b)       Guide: pachaka pitta

c)       Digested elements: fire

d)       Excessive sour: hyperacidity, ulcer, infections


3)       Pungent (Katu): Vata Stage

a)       Location: large intestine

b)       Guide: samana vayu

c)       Digested elements: air, ether

d)       Excessive pungent, bitter, dry: distention, gas, constipation, dryness


Nutrition begins when juice (ahara rasa) is extracted from the food, and then transformed by a special type of fire (agni) into vital liquid (eg.liquid, potion, nectar, essence, semen, sap, artistic appreciation, melodious sound, alchemical elements like mercury, soup, emotion) (rasa) [Sanskrit root trans.: ‘to move’], which nourishes the doshas and dhatus.


Tissues and Wastes: Products of Dosha; (Ros), (Svoboda), Kshirsagar), (Feuerstein)

Ayurveda understands that physiology fundamentally consists of three doshas because they express their influence through the tissues (seven dhatus) and waste (three malas). The body depends on the doshas to generate by-products (ie.tissues and wastes) from the energy-matter resource being exchanged between the individual and the environment.


Seven Tissues (Dhatus): Products of Digestion

The products of digestion and metabolism, the seven tissues (dhatus) [Sanskrit root trans.: ‘to support’], anchor the mind (spirit) in the physical body through a cycle of nourishment (dhatu chakra) (see ‘Five Elements Supporting Cycle’ above). The grosser tissues are raw material nutrient for the more subtle (ie. rasa ojas), which become increasingly more concentrated (refined) as the process progresses deeper internally. At each tissue stage are produced a secondary tissue (upadhatu), which has no further transformation, and wastes, which also have functions during the process of excretion (eg.feces giving temporary strength to the colon; urine maintaining body fluid balance; sweat lubricates skin, controls body temperature, and promotes growth of body hair).


Dhatus are measured in quantities of two palms joined together (anjali pramana), and each dhatu requires a particular time to generate. The tissues are relatively measured proportional to the optimal individual self in terms of deficiency (kshaya), excess (vriddhi), and optimum, or balanced (sara). Deficient or excess tissue results in waste product (mala).



Tissue (Dhatu)


Predominant Element

Waste (Mala)

Secondary Tissue (Upadhatu)

Plasma (also lymph, serum) (Rasa)

Location: whole body, heart, lymphatic sys. venous blood

Nourishment (Prenana): base nutrient liquid for entire body and all dhatus; digested food (ahara rasa)

Provides plasma to blood (body temperature; coagulation)

Facilitates lactation and menstruation

Foundation of glandular secretion (ojas)

Formation: 5 days

Anjali: 9


Deficient: thirst, palpitation, lethargy, dry skin, intolerance to noise, lack of faith or enthusiasm

Excess: pale skin, swelling, heaviness, obesity, lethargy, indigestion, body ache, anemia, cough, asthma, fever

Optimum: joyful, soft, glowing skin, oily, soft, silky hair



Breast milk (stanya), menstrual blood (raja)

Blood (Rakta)

Giving life (Jivana): invigoration, vitalizing of body and mind (carries prana to cells)

[Fourth Dosha- Sushruta]

Nourishes flesh

Provides enthusiasm, compassion, creativity, and ambition

Formation: 10 days

Anjali: 8


Deficient: dry, pale, discolored skin, preference for cold things, or sour, LBP, thirst

Excess: HBP, red skin and eyes, hemorrhage, varicosity, jaundice, skin infection

Optimum: joyful, lustrous skin, bright eyes, warm






Blood vessels (sira), tendons (kandara)

Flesh/Muscle (Mamsa)

Location: organs, over bones

Plastering skeleton (Lepana): contains and protects internal organs

Regulates motility: coordination, power

Provides confidence

Nourishes fat

Formation: 15 days

Anjali: 7


Deficient: weakness, atrophy, fatigue, LBP

Excess: weight gain, polyps, tumors

Optimum: strength, stamina, cooridination, confidence






Natural secretions

‘space wastes’



Body cavity fillers (eg. ear wax, navel lint, nasal mucus,

Ligaments (snayu), skin (twak), subcutaneous fat (vasa)

Fat (Meda/Sneha)

Location: all over body, beneath skin, around joints (sandhi)

Lubrication (Snehana): muscles and joints for constant contraction and retraction


Fat essence nourishes bone

Formation: 20 days

Anjali: 2


Deficient: thickness, weakness, enlarged spleen, fatigue, dry skin

Excess: overweight, obesity (esp.abdomen, hips, breasts), lethargy, asthma, cough, excessive perspiration, DM

Optimum: melodious, oily and lustrous skin, hair, nails, eyes, lips, rounded and strong joints, forgiving, compassionate








In joints (shleshaka kapha)

Sinews (snayu)

Bone (Asthi)

Support organs (Dharana)

Gives shape, structure, protection and stability for body (muscle attachments)

Carries sound (bones in ears)

Retains memory of pain, pleasure, subconscious emotions

Bone essence nourishes marrow

Formation: 25 days

Anjali: 2


Deficient: hair loss, weak nails and teeth, bone pain, loose joints, weakness, anxiety, insecurity

Excess: extra bone and teeth, ache

Optimum: long and strong bones, big and strong joints, strong nails and teeth, energetic







Hair, nails

Teeth, cartilage, head hair

Marrow (Majja)

Location: w/in bones, nerves, endocrine glands

Filling bone and feeling (Purana): strengthens body

Marrow essence generates semen

Formation: 30 days

Anjali: 2


Deficient: weak bones, dry skin, eyes, hair, dissiness, darkness under eyes, fear, insecurity, lack of concentration

Excess: heavy body, eyes, irregular nerve transmission

Optimum: strong body, soft skin and voice, strong joints, big and lustrous eyes






Mucus in eye canthus, tears, skin, and feces

Brain, spinal cord

Reproductive Fluid/Semen (Shukra/Artava)

Location: reproductive sys.

Procreation (Prajotpadana)

Provides vigor and vitality: essence of all dhatus

Through a gentle fire, semen essence generates glandular secretion

Qualities: cool, white, oily, sweet, liquid, heavy

Formation: 35 days

Anjali: 9


Optimum: strength, stamina, vitality, strong bones, eyes, nails, hair, libido, many offspring





Male: White Essence (Shukra); sperm


Deficient: premature ejaculation, improper erection, low sperm count, impotency

Excess: thick, copious semen, penile pain, nymphomania




Female: Red Essence (Artava); ovum

[Artava comes from root meaning for season (rtu) implying fertility’s assoc. w/season]


Deficient: menstrual disorder; fibroids, uterine tumors




Glandular Secretion (Ojas)

Unifies body and mind

Primal energy reserve

Inner intelligence

Protects (immune system)

Maintains balance of all dhatus

Controls heart beats

Regulates sense organs

Qualities: cool, oily, clear, heavy, soft, static

Formation: 40 days

Anjali: ¼ (8 drops in the Heart; decrease could cause death)

Divine Nectar (Soma)

Essence of Water




[sim.Taoist bone marrow washing: utilizing the combined action of electrical, magnetic, mechanical, glandular, neurological energy, which are used in sexual activity, but instead used to sublimate semen essence to nourish the brain, and consequentially acquiring psychic ability. (Jwing-Ming)]


Three Wastes (Malas): (Ros), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)

The three wastes (malas) [Skt.: “that spoils, or decays the body”], become toxic if not removed at the appropriate time. Malas support the body by cleansing it. If all the malas are removed by over-cleansing, vata will be aggravated, pitta and kapha breaks down, and hence the dhatus are weakened.


1)       Urine (Mutra):

a)       Formation:

i)         Small intestine: separates nutrients (ahara rasa) from waste (malas), which pass into

ii)       Large intestine: absorbs water waste

iii)      Fluid (rasa) and blood (rakta): water waste is carried by rasa and rakta w/dhatu malas to the rest of body

iv)      Kidneys: eventually water waste, rasa, and rakta filters through the kidneys as urine

v)        Urinary Bladder: apana vayu moves urine out via the urinary bladder

b)       Element: water, earth

c)       Location (mutravaha srotas): blood, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

d)       Taste: acidic, bitter, salty

e)       Odor, odorless

f)         Touch: warm

g)       Color: colorless, slightly yellowish

h)       Transparency: clear

i)         Quantity: 4 anjali

j)         Function:

i)         Maintain moisture and fluid levels (eg.BP)

ii)       Remove waste salts and minerals

k)       Imbalance: increase or decrease, incontinence, dysuria, hematuria, stones


2)   Feces (Purisha):

a)       Formation: semi-solid waste passes into large intestine; in cecum, samana vayu absorbs liquid waste, while the remainder is a stool to be excreted

b)       Element: earth, water

c)       Location (purishavaha srotas): cecum, ascending, transverse, descending colon, rectum, anus

d)       Quantity: 7 anjali (more in vegetarians)

e)       Color: yellowish brown (ranjaka pitta: bile salts from liver)

f)         Function:

i)                     Removes solid wastes from body

ii)                   Supports intestinal walls

iii)                  Removes toxins from GI

g)       Imbalance: constipation, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, colitis, diverticulitis, IBS, dysentery, parasites


3)       Sweat (Sweda):

a)       Formation: water element in rasa and rakta dhatu is excreted through sweat glands; meda mala

b)       Element: water

c)       Function:

i)         Moistens skin

ii)       Maintains body temperature: heat (bhrajaka pitta dilates dermal blood vessels and sweat glands to remove heat); cold (vyana vayu constricts blood vessels and sweat glands)

iii)      Cleanses toxins from superficial dhatus


Elimination of Excess Humor through Waste Material (Mala):

Insufficiency or excess accumulation of a particular dosha causes stagnation of energy, hence dysfunction. Therefore, wellness depends on the elimination of excess dosha (ghost with illness) via its corresponding waste (mala) material.


1)       Urine ® kapha

2)       Sweat ® pitta

3)       Feces ® vata


The accumulation of waste reflects its similarity with unhealthy lifestyle habits or patterns, which eventually becomes illness. This relationship explains the reasoning for transgression (sin) from the way of nature as a cause for disease.


Process of Disease:

There are three processes of disease that relate to the three humors and the five elements.


1)       Increase or accumulation (samchaya): occurs when the digestive fire (agni) weakens causing the development of undigested food particles (ama), which blocks the channels and becomes deposited in weakened areas of the body

o        Vata accumulates at large intestine

o        Pitta accumulates at small intestine

o        Kapha accumulates at stomach


2)       Aggravation (prakopa): doshas are aggravated according to various factors in descending order (eg. emotions, diet, lifestyle, environmental factors)

a)   Environmental Factors of Disease:

ii)                   Dryness (prana)

iii)                  Summer heat (ether)

iv)                  Wind (air)

v)                    Heat (fire)

vi)                  Dampness (water)

vii)                 Cold (earth)

       b)   Six Stages of Disease:

ii)       Accumulation (prana): mild, least physical

iii)      Aggravation (ether): stronger; still subtle

iv)      Flooding (wind): accumulation has completely filled region and overflowing

v)        Displacement (fire): takes hold into another location in body

vi)      Manifestation (water): recognizable disease

vii)     Flowering (earth): complications of disease


3)       Alleviation (prashama): after disliking qualities which increase symptoms, treatment can alleviate symptoms with a substance of opposite characteristics


Pathways of Disease:

1)       Inner (kapha): hollow organs dealing with the gastro-intestinal track (ie.stomach, intestines); easiest to treat; superficial; earth, water

2)       Outer (pitta): essentially the circulatory system (eg.skin, blood, lymphatics); second most difficult to treat; water and fire 

3)       Central (vata): degenerative conditions (eg. bone, muscle, nerves); most difficult to treat; deep; air


Aura and Luster: Expansion of Ojas into the Ethereal Body; (Ros), (Kshirsagar), (Svoboda)

Rasa dhatu is the foundation for the ultimate refined product for ojas, which permits tejas to project from the subtle body into the physical body, where it appears as digestive fire. Thus, ojas is both the cause and effect of good digestion, and its conservation is essential for good health because it controls the immune system by expanding into the aura, which serves as a subtle shield against invasive ethereal forces.


Aura overshadows the body luster, while the luster enhances the body color. The aura is perceived from a close distance, while luster shines from a far. Luster originates from the fire element of seven colored types:


1)       red

2)       yellow

3)       white

4)       dark brown

5)       green

6)       pale white

7)       black


Bright, shiny, and expanded luster reflects the auspiciousness of good health, while dark, dull, and contracted luster reflects the inauspiciousness of disease. The color of the aura is a projection of the predominant element of the individual.


1)       Ether: pure, blue, glossy

2)       Air: dry, dark reddish-brown, dull; manifests when prana is imbalanced (only luster element that portends death or illness)

3)       Fire: clear red, delightful

4)       Water: clear like pure water, glossy

5)       Earth: stable, glossy, dense, smooth, dark or white


It was said that Gautama Buddha’s aura extended for 50 miles from his body, and whoever came into his perimeter felt a little more peaceful. (Ros)


Channels of Flow: Gross Channels (Srota); (Ros), (Kshirsagar)

The balanced doshas nourish the tissues via an irrigation system of channels (srota), which move nutrients, tissues, and waste. These channels (srota) exist on every level of existence except the most subtle (eg.nadi is a srota), but generally are referring to channels on the gross level.


Type: (see also ‘Major Channels’ below)


¤      Vein (sira)

¤      Artery (dhamani)

¤      Lymphatic vessel (lasika)



¤      Energy Meridian (nadi)


Major Channels:

There are fourteen major channels common to both sexes, while females have an additional two (16). The major channels are qualified into four different groups:


1)       Nutrients: intake of nutrients

2)       Tissues: nutrition of tissues

3)       Wastes: expulsion of wastes

4)       Mind


Channels of Nutrients:

¤      Prana: govers respiration (Lung) and heart (ie.heart and brain)

¤      Water: governs balance of liquid; extends from the palate to the pancreas (kloman)

¤      Food: digestive tract; extends from region of esophagus to stomach to colon


Channels of Tissues:

¤      Rasa: consists of heart and ’10 Great Vessels’; includes lymphatic and cardiovascular system which transport rasa from the gut to the heart

¤      Blood: liver (forming blood cells) and spleen (destroying old red blood cells)

¤      Flesh: muscles and skin

¤      Fat: kidneys and vapavahana

¤      Bone: fat and the hips

¤      Marrow: bones, joints, brain, spinal cord

¤      (M) Shukra/(F)Artava: reproductive organs (ie.testes, penis, ovaries, vagina, clitoris)


Channels of Waste:

¤      Urine (mutra): bladder and kidneys

¤      Feces (purisha): colon and rectum

¤      Sweat (sweda): fat and hair follicles


Channel of Mind:

¤      Mind: pervades entire body (body is channel for mind)



The physical form of the body emerges according to the nutritional metamorphosis facilitated by the srotas. Health is determined by the fluidity of the channels; obstructed flow creates disease. There are four possible disturbances in channel flow.


1)       Increase [sim.TCM:excess] (eg.diarrhea)

2)       Decrease [sim.TCM: deficiency] (eg.constipation)

3)       Knotted [sim.TCM: obstructed; stagnation] (eg.tumor)

4)       Deviation [sim.TCM: rebellious] (eg.belch)


The main cause of channel disturbance is the restraint of the thirteen urges, which should never be restrained, or vata will move abnormally.


Thirteen Urges:

1)       urinate

2)       defecate

3)       release flatulence

4)       vomit

5)       sneeze

6)       belch

7)       yawn

8)       eat when hungry

9)       drink when thirsty

10)   cry when sad

11)   sleep when sleepy

12)   pant after exertion

13)   ejaculate after irresistibly aroused


Eventhough the physical reflexes (listed above) should never be restrained, negative emotional urges should be restrained (eg.greed, sorrow, fear, anger, envy, pride, shame, disgust). Also, physical urges may disturb the body even if they are not restrained (ie.clenching teeth during urination and defecation to prevent the downward force of apana vata from loosening urges) [sim.Taoist qigong: inhaling during urination and defecation].


Major Organs: Twelve Organs of the Thorax and Abdomen (Kosthangas); (Ros)

All twelve major organs possess energy channels (nadi) in the body [sim.TCM: internal organs (zang-fu)].


Air (vayu):

1)       Lung: respiration; controls flow of water (kapha) and prana; expands into skin and hair

2)       Large Intestine (sthulantra): absorbs energy from food (vata); effects skin and hair


Earth (prithvi):

3)       Stomach: regulates digestion of food (kapha)

4)       Spleen (pliha): transformation of food (kapha) into blood (pitta); connects with muscles and fat


Fire (teja):

5)       Heart: blood circulation (pitta); muscle organ (kapha)

6)       Small Intestine (ksudantra): absorbs and separates fluid through digestive fire (agni) (pitta)


Water (jala):

7)       Urinary Bladder (basti): stores and excretes (vata) urine which is produced in the kidney

8)       Kidney (vrukka): regulates growth and reproduction (vata); regulates water metabolism: moves water (vata), retains water (kapha); connects with bones and bone marrow


Fire (teja):

9)       Pericardium: heart protector; connected with diaphragm and contributes to blood circulation (kapha; vata)

10)   Tri-Humor (dosha): regulates the movement (vata) of the three humors (kapha) through the whole body


Ether (akasa):

11)   Gall Bladder: stores and secretes bile which is made in the liver, and used in digestion (pitta)

12)   Liver: regulates smooth flow of prana and hence blood; transforms the five elements into functional form through its five elemental liver fires (bhuta agni) (pitta); opens into the tendons