[under construction]



When one seeks healing, one also receives messages from spiritual guides.



(see also Becker and Hagen's Planetary Grid System)


Mountain Chakras (Energy centers): (eg.vile vortices)

Root: Ararat

Navel: Neblina

Solar Plexus: Kilamanjaro

Heart: Haleakala

Throat: Shasta

Brow: Everest

Crown: Fuji


Other Interpretations of Chakra Sites:

The planetary chakra system alternates/changes according to a predetermined/particular timing (eg.celestial influence; Earth spin); (sim.vile vortices).


Central Hermetic Site: (primary electro-magnetic geo-cosmic connection)

Etheric Heart Center [sim.Tantric: Anahata Chakra] (internal and external operates in tandem):

·         Internal: Avebury Circle, Wiltshire, England (according to Richard C. Hoagland: site design geometry parallels megalithic site geometry at Cydonia, Mars)

·         External: Glastonbury Tor; current Mobile Focus (see geomancy)

Avebury Round Table of the Sun:

Avebury is considered a condensed planetary Round Table of the Sun, which is a model for understanding the independent/differentiated activities of the 12 tones (solar royal court) in one sound (ie.solar logos; sun king; individual component of galactic logos). The planetary Round Table is the central receptor complex for cosmic (solar system) energy, contributing to Gaia's star evolution paradigm (on the threshold of transcendence, attaining 4th dimensional awareness of anti-gravity). According to Sumerian cosmology/astrology, the solar system comprises of 12 planetary/celestial (revolving, rotating, interrelating) bodies, or cosmic notes, influencing 12 zodiac houses; establishing a triangular influence (stars-planets-geo points) upon life via Dragon (Knight) Lines (12) [sim.Babylonian: "dragon" (sir); British: title for knight (sir)] and the Avebury Round Table of the Sun.

In summary, Avebury is calibrated by 12 tones, which are induced by solar (Earth's ecliptic through the 12 zodiac houses; 12 months) and galactic (Sun's ecliptic through zodiac; zodiac age = 2160 years; precession of equinoxes) ecliptics.


Cradle of Civilization:

Ante-Diluvial Landing Corridor:

In the land [Sumerian: “home of the righteous ones” (Edin); Akkadian: “plain” (edinu); Biblical: Eden] between the two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) [Biblical: “abundant” (Pishon) and “which gushes forth” (Gihon)], the landing corridor was laid out like an arrow (45° NW), entering from the headwaters of the Persian Gulf (most abundant source of petroleum; Sumerians had names for the 9 bituminous substances: petroleum, crude oils, native asphalts, rock asphalts, tars, pyrogenic asphalts, mastics, waxes, pitches), and pointing to the twin peaks of Mount Ararat, the Near East’s most conspicuous landmarks. Five cities with specific function were established in five perfect places. The cities on the centerline of the flight corridor are separated at intervals of 6 beru (60km/37 mi.).


Earth Stations (Reflective with Seven Stations of Heaven on Nibiru’s Path):

1)   Eridu (Home in Faraway Built): first gold extracting facility at the edge of the Persian Gulf; abode of Ea; third ring from center [1r.Ea/Enki] (An Nasiriyah)

2)   Bad-Tibira (Bright Place Where the Ores are Made Final): metallurgical smelting and refining center; second ring from center on flight path [1r.Nannar]

3)   Laraak (Seeing the Bright Glow): beacon city to guide landing shuttlecraft; first ring from center on flight path, triangulating with the other paired beacon cities [1r.Ninurta]

4)   Sippar (Bird City): landing place; space port; second ring from center on flight path [1r.Utu]

5)   Shuruppak (Place of the Utmost Well-Being): medical center; first ring from center on flight path [1r.Ninhursag]

6)   Laarsa (Seeing the Red Light): beacon city; second ring from center [1r.Ea/Enlil]

7)   Nibiruki (Earth Place of Nibiru): mission control center (duranki); center [1r.Enlil]

8)   Lagash: beacon city paired with Laarsa; second ring from center [1r.Ninurta]

First established was Home in Faraway Built (Eridu), which functioned as the first gold extracting facility at the edge of the Persian Gulf, and abode of Enki. The spaceport was built at Bird City (Sippar), which was aligned on center with the flight corridor. Bright Place Where the Ores are Made Final (Bad-Tibira), the smelting and refining center, and Place of the Utmost Well-Being (Shuruppak), the medical center, was laid out on center, from the landing corridor’s entrance. Earth Place of Nibiru (Nibruki) [Akkadian: Crossing Place on Earth (Nippur)], served as the mission control center, located in the exact center of the landing corridor. At Nibiruki was a raised platform, Place of Earth’s Root (Kiur), with antennas, ascending to a secret communication chamber (from Earth to the Igigi), the holy of holies, the Dark, Glowing Chamber (Dirga) [sim.Hebrew: Ark of the Covenant], where vital star charts and orbital data panels, the Tablets of Destinies, were installed, and the Bond of Heaven and Earth (Duranki), a true axis mundi, was maintained. The structure became the prototype for all ziggurats and pyramids (eg.Tower of Babel) to come.


POST-DILUVIAL FLIGHT CORRIDOR: Triangulations of the Divine Grid (see fig.)

The post-Diluvial flight corridor adopted the same principles of triangulation as the antediluvial flight corridor. The masterful yet simple Divine Grid precisely arrayed by the Anunnaki, artfully combined basic geometry with natural landmarks. Mount Ararat is the northern landmark that anchors the flight corridor on center with mission control (Jerusalem) and the spaceport in Tilmun (Sinai). The southern line of the landing corridor connects the twin peaks of Ararat with the twin peaks of St. Katherine (Harsag) and Umm Shumar (Mount Moses), while the upper line of the landing corridor connects through landing platform at Baalbek and the pyramids (artificial twin peaks) of Giza and Heliopolis. Due the flat terrain of Egypt, artificial twin peaks were constructed where the northern line of the flight corridor crossed the 30th parallel (30° N Lat), which delineated a sacred division of air space. The Three Ways delineated the airspace (each spanning 60° Lat) between Enlil in the north (northpole to 30° N Lat), An in the middle over the equator (30° N Lat to 30° S Lat), and Ea in the south (southpole to 30° S Lat). The outer and inner perimeter circles about Mission Control (Jerusalem) designated the equidistant pairs of radial sites which utilized oracle stone installations for communication.


Diluvial Pivot for Focal Point of Central Flight Corridor:

1)  Mount Ararat: focal point of central flight corridor

· Highest Mount in Near East

· Post-diluvial landing place


Outer Circle:

2)  Giza/Heliopolis (An): Geodesic Beacon

· Outlines flight corridor

· Giza Pyramid, two companion pyramids, and sphinx situated on Baalbek-Ararat line

· Equidistant with Mount St. Katherine to Baalbek and Jerusalem


3)  Mount St. Katherine/Mount Umm Shumar: Geodesic Beacon

· Outlines flight corridor

· Highest peaks of Sinai

· Distinctive twin peaks

· Equidistant with Giza Pyramid to Baalbek and Jerusalem


Inner Circle:

4) Baalbek (Cedar Mountain): Landing Place

· Antediluvial platform of immense size

· Equidistant with Mount Sinai to Jerusalem


5)  Mount Sinai: Spaceport (see ‘Tilmun above)

· Situated in the intersection of central flight path and 30th parallel (gaze of the sphinx)

· Equidistant from Heliopolis and Umm Shumar

· Equidistant with Baalbek to Jerusalem



6) Jerusalem (Mount Zion): Mission Control

· Crossing point where the Baalbek-Mount St. Katherine line intersects with the flight path’s center line leading to the focal point of Mount Ararat

· The angle drawn from Jerusalem to Heliopolis and Mount Umm Shumar is exactly 45º


The Bible has glorified the divine connections between Jerusalem (Mount Zion), Baalbek (Crest of Zaphon), and Giza (Memphis). According to the Book of Jubilees, there were four Places of the Lord on Earth, which were created as holy places facing each other. Three of them were in the lands of Shem.

1) Garden of Eternity in the Cedar Mountain (Baalbek): the most sacred; dwelling of the Lord

2) Mountain of the East (Mount Ararat): not in the lands of Shem

3) Mount Sinai (Tilmun): center of the Sacred Desert

4) Mount Zion (Jerusalem): center of the Navel of the Earth

The ancient oracle sites of the Cedar Mountain, Mount Sinai, and Mount Zion, are situated at equal angles (11.5º) from the oracle site at Delphi, Greece. Furthermore, the oracle sites of Jerusalem and Siwa to Delphi correlate angularly (45º) with the oracle site arrangement of Mount St. Katherine and Heliopolis to Jerusalem, respectively.


GAZE OF THE SPHINX (30th N parallel): Silk Road

Heliopolis (Giza)






see also video on Atlantis: http://www.forbiddenknowledgetv.com/videos/atlantis--lemuria/atlantis-the-lost-continent-.html







[Archeological and/or ancient religious/spiritual/sacred sites listed by continent, country, and then state/province, alphabetically. The data-list compilations were dependent on the information available/discovered.]

The following list catalogs archeological and/or ancient religious/spiritual/sacred sites, as possible candidates for electro-magnetic technologies via earth grid site position and celestial orientation (vortex site), listed by continent, country, and then state/province/city, alphabetically; nearby rivers, sacred mountain peaks, modern city/town/village location, and associated buildings are also incorporated. The data-list compilations were dependent on the information available/discovered.

Sacred site candidate-types include:

·         Megalithic sites (eg.ante-diluvian ziggurats/pyramids, temples, stone circles, standing stones, dolmens, cairns, brochs, rune/picture stones, stone ships, talayots, kurgans, nuraghe, underwater megaliths, petroglyphs, etc.; emphasized sacred site type- see [note 93])

·         Painted caves (European Neanderthal/Australian aboriginal)

·         Sumerian ziggurats (cradle of civilization)

·         Pyramids, mounds and cliff dwellings (eg.kiva)(Africa, Asia, Europe, Americas)

·         Phoenician-Greco-Roman stone pantheonic temples (Mediterannean, Europe)

·         Hindu-Buddhist temples (eg.mandirs, wats, candis, stupas, grottoes, caves) (Asia)

·         Muslim mosques (early Islamic world: Asia, Africa, Europe)

·         Judeo-Christian synagogues, churches, cathedrals, monasteries (Holy Land and Europe)

·         Fortifications (Celtic-Roman castrum)/medieval castles (Asia, Europe)

·         crop circles

[NOTE 86] Most pyramids, monuments, and megaliths were built on earth’s energy grid (aka. “ley lines”), which was known and considered in the ancient world. <it is a scientific fact that> Ley Lines (ie. Chinese geomancy called them “dragon lines”) are straight fault lines in the earth’s tectonic plates, which release powerful electro-magnetic energy <not recognized by science>. Ley Lines generate telluric currents in the land; certain geological topologies will magnify telluric current- where megalithic builders preferred to position their structures-technologies; where ley lines cross (conductivity discontinuities: place where one area of ground which has good electrical conductivity meets another area with lesser capacity for conductivity)- where ancient megalithic sites were established; the pre-dawn hours have heightened telluric wave energy, due to the daily changes in the earth’s geo-magnetic field (strongest in day, weakest at night; pre-dawn is the most dramatic change, or increase in the strength of telluric electro-magnetic energy; weaker field changing to stronger field); Induction physics: wherever there is a changing magnetic field, there is the generation of electric current; megalithic structures were technologies used to concentrate electro-magnetic energy; power-plants


This Vortex Site work in progress, an overwhelming task, intends to compile a data-list of archeological sacred sites of prehistoric antiquity, and superimpose their collective locations over various earth grid networks (which may vary in scope), in order to study their functional, geometrical, and harmonic relationships.






·         Carthage (Tunis)

·         El Wad/Oued [Arabic: “the river”] (250-45k BP: Neanderthal; oasis town watered by underground river; Guemar)

·         Great Mosque of Algiers (1097 CE: Almoravid Islamic; Casbah, Bab el Oued, Algiers)

·         Great Mosque of Tlemcen (1082 CE: Almoravid Islamic; Tlemcen)

·         Ketchaoua Mosque (1612 CE: Moorish-Byzantine Islamic; Algiers)

·         Serquenout (Ideles; Mt.Telerhteba)



·         Tsodilo (70000 BCE: first known human ritual; 4500 rock paintings; rock carvings; Kalahari desert; Shakawe)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Bouar [MA](3140 BCE: Neolithic: megaliths, cairns, settlements; star stones- Cepheus, Draco)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Agoza [MA](Neolithic; Lake Chad)


EGYPT: [MA: pyramids]

[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]

[NOTE 75] Great Pyramid is the reduced embodiment of the dimensions <scale model> of the Earth (see Giza below): the base measurement (cubit) used in ancient navigation, taking into account the Earth’s wobble and the Precession of the Equinoxes (or Lunar-Solar Precession, or the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on the Earth’s equator causing its wobble) reflects in the Great Pyramid of Giza; Plato refered to the Earth as the “sphere within the sphere” (precession of constellations); the rate of precession was measured <in calibrations of 12> with an instrument which resembles a ringed cross; Plato described the Earth as a “12 pathced leather ball”; a zodiac age (2160 years) = 1/12 the Platonic Year (25920 years), or one complete Earth wobble cycle

[NOTE 76] Thoth is the patron deity of weights and measures, and the <measurement of the> moon; Essenes measured the lunar cycle; the moon is the only celestial body with a retrograde rate measurable with the human eye; according to Plato (descriptions within the works, Timaeus and Critias), Atlantis was destroyed 9000 years (or lunar cycles/months) before his time (ie. solar calendar: 10000 BCE; lunar calendar: c. 1500 BCE; perhaps used more widely in ancient world; actual time designation <solar/lunar> could have been lost in the translation of 4 historical renderings coming to Plato); Antikythera mechanism (dated- 1st c.BCE?) was recovered in the Antikythera ship wreck; it is an ancient analog computer (w/bronze gears; 2 concentric scales: Greek solar cycle and Egyptian Lunar-Sothic cycle) designed to calculate astronomical <solar, lunar, planet> positions (Crichton Miller)


[NOTE 79] The invasion of the Sea Peoples (Atlanteans? seemed to come from northern and western Atlantic- Germany, Denmark, Holland), fighting major naval battles against Egypt, during the New Kingdom; who the Sea Peoples were and where they came from is considered a mystery to academia; their naval migrations (through the Straight of Gibraltar) were prompted by rising sea levels (3’/year for 100 years); the Egyptians defeated the Sea Peoples, and consequently settled around Greece, Turkey, and Lebanon; submerged port cities off the coast of Egypt near Alexandria: Heracleon and Menuthias (another son of Poseidon); the sons of Poseidon- Atlas, Menuthias, Gades, etc. were building port cities of their maritime trade empire around the world (from Sidon to Gibraltar and beyond), with the ancient mapping knowledge <of Atlas>


[NOTE 85] 25,000 mi. circle alignment (100km wide) of ancient megalithic sites (pyramids): Peru- Paracas drawing, Nazca track, Ollantaytambo, Machu Picchu, Cusco, Sacsayhuamnan, Paratoari; Africa- Mali- Dogon lands; Algeria- Tassili N’ajjer; Egypt- Siwa oasis, Giza Great Pyramid, Petra; Mesopotamia- Ur, Persepolis; Pakistan- Mohenjo Daro; India- Khajuraho; Burma- Pyay; Thailand- Sukhothai; Cambodia- Angkor Wat, Preah Vihear; Easter Island; alignment: is at an angle of 30° from the equator; similarly, Giza is located on the 30°N Lat parallel, the line defining the Neutrality Zone; eventhough the sites are from different historical periods, most were built upon more ancient sites; the circle is equal in length to the equator; if the line is taken as the equator, then the north pole would be in present day Alaska; distance matching: Giza-Nazca = Giza-Teotihuacan; Angkor Wat-Nazca = Mohenjo Daro-Easter Island; Giza-Easter Island = 10000 x F; (Angkor Wat-Giza) x F = Giza-Nazca; (Giza-Nazca) x F = Nazca-Angkor Wat;


[NOTE 86] Submerged Cities: there are 200+ sunken cities in the Mediterranean alone (Childress); 10,000,000 sq. miles (approx. size of Europe and China) of <costal> land was flooded; and rubbed from the record (Hancock)


[NOTE 87] Atlantis was an urban civilization with large naval forces that conquered other parts of the world; accd to Greek texts, Atlantis was connected with extra-terrestrial beings; founded by Poseidon (Sumerian: Ea/Enki), who built Atlantis to protect his demigod lineage


[NOTE 91] mythological thinking for astronomical reality

[NOTE 92] Band of Peace sites: all on the ancient Nile river bed; all visible from one site to the next; black granite floor tiles at the E part of site; astronomical ritual- Sirius drops below horizon (out of sight) for 70 days, which coincides with the flooding of the Nile; Star-Site correspondences: Orion’s Belt- Giza, Pleiades- Abu Sir, Leo- Heliopolis; sound healing harmonic resonance- site chambers harmonize w/human body cavities; older constructions are built of larger megaliths, while newer constructions are built of smaller megaliths;

[NOTE 93] megalithic temple sites (ie. pyramids, henges, etc.; usually in a series having star correspondence in plan; placed on ground where an unusual type of geology concentrates (magnifies intensity several fold) the regular daily natural electro-magnetic fluctuations that occur everywhere) are typically located on <global> ley lines (and where they cross- conductivity discontinuities: where greater line of current meets a lesser line of current), which conduct telluric waves/current of subtle Earth <electro-magnetic> energy (qi; prana); in Chinese tradition, only the emperor (illegal for commoners) could be buried on a dragon line (aka. ley line); megalithic temple function- power plant; key hours are the pre-dawn hours (ie. 3-5am; hour of Lung-tiger; when the weaker <magnetic> field changes to the stronger field most quickly; induction- changing magnetic fields generate electric current); the energy field fluctuates with the daily changes in the geomagnetic field (strongest during the day, and weakest at night); the  orientation of temples changed to match the precessional drift of the stars; alignment to stars indicates the tracking of the seasons (monsoons)- to arrive at a location when the lakes have water; temples are geometrical metaphors for the human body; sacred sites along W shore of the Nile, mark the position of the old Nile, and hence measure the migration of the Nile, about 8 mi. W-E;

·         Abu Garab (band of peace; quartz base for largest obelisk once standing in Egypt; laser cut round disc base and holes)

·         Abu Haggag Mosque (Islamic; built on 14th c.BCE Egyptian temple; Luxor)

·         Abu Rowash [MA] (band of peace; pyramid open to air; top of mountain)

·         Abu Simbel [MA](1224 BCE; Egyptian; Kushite; ruins)

·         Abu Sir (band of peace; star correspondence- Pleiades; )

·         Abydos (Predynastic; cult center of Khentiamentiu, Osiris and Isis; relief depictions- helicopter-like and flying machine objects; Asyut-Luxor)

·         Ahmad Ibn Tulun Mosque (884 CE: Abbasid Islamic; Cairo)

·         Aksha

·         Al-Azhar Mosque (969 CE: Islamic; Cairo)

·         Al-Hakim Mosque (928-92 CE: Islamic; Cairo)

·         Al-Hussein Mosque (1154 CE: Islamic; Cairo)

·         Alexandria acropolis

·         Amarna/Akhetaten (1346 BCE: city of Akhetaten; El Minya)

·         Amr ibn al-As Mosque (642 CE: Islamic; oldest mosque in Africa; Fustat)

·         Aqsunqur/Blue Mosque (1347 CE: Mamluk Islamic; Cairo)

·         Armant/Hermonthis (Middle k.: Hatsheput; mortuary temples; Thebes)

·         Beni Hassan (21st-17th c.BCE: Old-Middle k.; ancient Egyptian-Hatsheput cemetery; 39 tombs: tombs of Jhety and Baket/Artemis; Asyut-Memphis)

·         Bubastis/Tell Basta/Per-Bast/Phibeseth [Bibl.: House of Bastet”] (943 BCE: Shoshenq I; Cairo)

·         Buto/Per Wadjet (Paleolithic; 3100 BCE: 305 BCE: Ptolemaic; Alexandria)

·         Dashur/Dashour (Old Kingdom: royal necropolis: smooth sided pyramids (sim. Giza)- Snorfu’s Bent Pyramid (white); Red Pyramid- interior: giant crack/fissure, chemical burns; Black Pyramid; band of peace; Cairo)

·         Deir el-Madinah (1600 BCE: Thebes)

·         Deir el-Bahri (2100 BCE: Old-Middle k.: Hatsheput; mortuary temples; Luxor)

·         Dendera (2613 BCE: temple foundations; complex: Temple of Hathor; Roman-Ptolemaic: birth houses; Coptic church of Isis; Hancock: duat model; zodiac-constellation ceiling; relief depictions of light bulb like objects; Qina)

·         Edfu/Behdet (Ramses II; 237 BCE; Lato)

·         El Ashmunein/Hermopolis/Khmun [Egyptian: “eight town;” Ogdoad “8 deities”](Old-Middle k.: Hatsheput; Al Minya)

·         El Dakka (Hyksos-Hatsheput; 3rd c.BCE: Meroitic-Kushite: temple to Thoth; near Kuban)

·         El-Mursi Abul-Abbas Mosque (1775 CE: Islamic; Alexandria)

·         El-Tabia Mosque (Islamic; Aswan)

·         Elephantine/Abu/Yebu (1650 BCE: Hyksos-Hatsheput: temple/abode to Khnum; Ptolemaic; Greco-Roman; Tropic of Cancer)

·         El Kab/Nekhab/Nekhen/Hierakonpolis (10000 BCE: Paleolithic; 5500 BCE: Neolithic; 3100 BCE: Early Dyn.temples; 1550 BCE: Hyksos-Hatsheput: rock cut temples, necropolis; 332 BCE: Ptolemaic settlement; Coptic monastery; Wadi Hillal; Luxor)

·         Esna (1493 BCE: Thutmose II; Lato)

·         Faras (Hyksos-Hatsheput; Meroitic: temple; Nubian border; l.Nasser)

·         Gerf Husein (rock-cut temple of Ptah: Ramses II; Lake Nasser)

·         Giza/Great Pyramid [MA] (2560 BCE?; 25000-36000 BCE (1.5 precessional cycles ago): and Khafre’s Pyramid Giza; marked ancient prime meridian (indicating ancient world mappers); Earth commensurate measurement: Earth dimensions embodied in the Great Pyramid; factor 43200- circumference of Earth = 21600 nautical miles = 43200 pyramid base perimeter lengths; base side = ½ nautical mile (1 NM = 1.15 mi or 6076.12 ft) or 440 cubits (cubit = 20.632 in.); 440 x 4 = 1760; 1760/half nautical mile = 20.632 in. (Egyptian cubit); perimeter of bases x 43200 = equatorial circumference of Earth; height of Great Pyramid x 43200 = polar radius of earth (distance from earth center to north pole); (John Anthony West; Graham Hancock); half perimeter/height = golden mean (F2); also found in ‘king’s chamber’ (F); elevation found in façade of Strassburg cathedral; pi and phi derive the value of the cubit: p (3.1416) - F2 (2.618) = .5236 (cubit); height of Great Pyramid x 1 billion = approx. distance from earth to the sun; perimeter of pyramid base / 2 x height = p; Hancock: Pyramid of Sneferu; complex connected w/Heliopolis; the pyramid is a model of the sky (stars); the pharaoh represents heaven as the son of Osiris (aka.Orion); 1872: Robert Baval: the celestial river is the milky way galaxy); discovered shaft from Queen’s chamber inclining towards the star Sirius <of Isis, divine mother, wife or Osiris, lord of Duat>; 2 shafts from the King’s chamber target stars: N- Orion’s belt; mirror of heaven; model of Duat; 10500 BCE: three pyramids aligned with the three stars of Orion’s belt- due S; gaze of the sphinx: due E- captures view of sunrise during the spring equinox; rising constellation on E horizon was Leo, in 10500 BCE; band of peace; 2nd pyramid maybe older than the Great pyramid w/older foundation platform; center of largest trans-continental land mass on Earth- Africa, Europe, Asia; inner core made of dolemite limestone-high magnesium content, stronger conductor; outer whiter limestone (closer to pure calcium carbonate)-low magnesium content, therefore a weaker conductor of electricity than dolemite, an insulator; granite lined passage ways and shafts is slightly radioactive, releasing radon gas, and will ionize or electrify the air; transmission stone; limestone aquifers fill with water after rainfall and river flooding (rise and fall of the Nile) causing the generation of an electric current/charge (sim. Eng. mounds and stone circles; Tihuanacu; Abydos); concentration of negative charge from the ground at the peak of pyramid (or mound), and concentration fo positive charge above; if 2 charges become strong enough, brush discharge may be produced- glow effect on pyramid; power plant for Earth during a golden age/sattya yuga;

·         Heliopolis/An (3100 BCE; star correspondence- Leo)

·         Henen-Nesut/Herakleopolis Magna [Egy.:”House of the Royal Child”](Old-Middle: cult center of Heryshaf-Herakles; Nubian; Coptic)

·         Jabal Yu Alliq/Mount Gebal [MA](Neolithic Age; highest peak in N Sinai)

·         Karnak [MA](2100 BCE; Hancock: winter solstice axis alignment- “gateway to the heavens”; Big Dipper and Orion alignments (sim. Nabta Playa); architectural Hyksos-Hatsheput; Fibonacci series and Golden Section found in architecture; consecrated to Amun-Ra, the animator of form; ram-sphinxes; horn spirals; 4D-growth architecture; realm of Neter- invisible science; Philae)

·         Temple of Kom Ombo (Ptolemaic)

·         Kom el Ahmar (Middle k.: Hatsheput; N Edfu)

·         Kuban (Hyksos-Hatsheput; near El Dakka)

·         Luxor Temple (1400 BCE: Thebes)

·         Medinet Habu (Hyksos-Hatsheput; New k.: Ramses III; mortuary temple; Luxor)

·         Colossi of Memnon [MA](1400 BCE: Thebes)

·         Memphis (3100 BCE: f.Menes k.; 2600 BCE: Old Kingdom capital; Hatsheput; Nubian; Mit Rahina)

·         Menkaure’s Pyramid [MA](Giza)

·         Miam

·         Nabta/Napta Playa [MA](3117 BCE: Neolithic: star stones- Taurus, Pleaides, Vernal Equinox; 3 layers of sediment: 1- Aswan calendar stone circle (oldest); 2- “cow stone” megalithic sculpture buried beneath; 3- further beneath, older bedrock sculpture; alignments: summer solstice calendar?; 6270 BCE-Sirius, Arcturus, Alpha Centauri; <Wendorf and Malville; Brophy and Rosen>, 6400-4900 BCE-Orion <Brophy>; Big Dipper (represented by cow leg by later Egyptians); necropolis-human, cattle; could be source of Egyptian civilization; SE Egyptian desert)

·         Ninsu (El Faiyum)

·         Oxyrhynchus (300 BCE: Greek; El Minya)

·         Pi-Ramses/Avaris/Hit-waret [Egy.: “House of the Department”] (1783 BCE: Hyksos trading capital; Nile Delta)

·         Pyramid of Amenemhet III [MA] (Hawara)

·         Pyramid of Nyuserre Ini [MA](2400 BCE)

·         Pompei’s Pillar [MA](293 CE: Alexandria)

·         Qasr Ibrim/Primis (Hyksos-Hatsheput; 750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Byzantine; Wadi Halfa)

·         Qis (Middle k.: Hyksos-Hatsheput; Al Minya)

·         Quseir/Leucus Limen (3000 BCE; Ramses II; Al Qusair; Red Sea)

·         Osireion [MA](1294 BCE: Abydos)

·         Rameses obelisk [MA](Luxor)

·         Rameses IV quarries [MA](Wadi Hammamat)

·         Rameses IV tomb [MA](Thebes)

·         Ramesseum [MA](1300 BCE: Thebes)

·         Sahure’s pyramid [MA](Saqquara)

·         Saint Katherine’s Monastery, Mount Sinai (1450 BCE: where Moses saw the burning bush and received the Ten Commandments; 381 CE: monastic life recorded by Egeria; 527-565 CE: monastery; 800 CE: monks discovered remains of St.Katherine; Achtiname document therein stating the monastery’s protection by Muhammad; Fatimid mosque built within walls of monastery; Mount Saint Katherine)

·         Saint Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral (60 CE: founder: St.Mark the Evangelist martyred and buried under church in 68 CE; 311 CE: little chapel on grave of St.Mark; 321 CE: church enlarged; 641 CE: ruined by Arabs; 680 CE: rebuilt; 828 CE: body of St.Mark robbed by Italians, but head remained; 1219 CE: destroyed during crusades; 1547 CE: new church founded; 1819 CE: church rebuilt; 1950 CE: rebuilt; Coptic Orthodox; Alexandria)

·         Sais/Zau (pre-Diluvial town: survived; 1100 BCE; 8th c.BCE: 24th d.: Nubian; Alexandria)

·         Sakara/Saqqara (4300 BP: Pyramid complex; Step Pyramid of Zoser; Pyramid of Unas: interior- inscribed text, sacred spell-astronomical code?, legacy of lost civilization?; star ceiling; describing journey in the duat, near constellation Orion, image of their god Osiris; symbol for duat: 5 pointed star within a circle; band of peace; sophisticated mechanistic disc discovered by Walter Emory; concave quartz floor; Isis is connected to Sirius, and Osiris to Orion)

·         Serabit el Khadim (ancient Egyptian-Hatsheput turqoise mine; Sinai pen.; Wadi Matula)

·         Speos Artemidos/Grotto of Artemis (Middle k.: Hyksos-Hatsheput; S Beni Hassan; Al Minya)

·         Mount Sinai/Horeb/Musa/Gabal Musa (post-diluvial flight corridor; St.Katherine City)

·         Sultan Hassan Mosque (1356 CE: Mamluk Islamic; stones harvested from Giza necropolis; Cairo)

·         Tanis/Djanet (1600 BCE; Nile Delta)

·         Thebes (capital of New Kingdom-Hatshepshut: necropolis; Luxor)

·         Tjeny (Nubian-Merotic; Coptic; Girga)

·         Valley of the Kings (1600 BCE: Theban Necropolis; Hancock: Burial place of Seti I; astronomical ceiling- star gods, constellation symbols; made astronomical-afterlife)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Addis Ababa, Sodda Megaliths [MA](3117 BCE: Neolithic; Addis Ababa)

·         Axum [MA](400 BCE; Adwa mts.)

·         Dire Dawa (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Senegambian stone circles [MA](Neolithic; 8th c.CE; stone circles; erected over earlier graves; star stones- Hydra, Virgo; N of Janjanbureh/Georgetown)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Haua Fteah (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)

·         Qusayr [Arabic: “castle”] Ad Daffah [MA](Neolithic; marked ancient border between Egypt and Libya)

·         Tobruk [MA](Neolithic; Greek colony: Antipyrgus; Roman: fortress; Al Butnan)



[NOTE 94] Many Dogon glyph drawings (cosmological) match meanings with Egyptian heiroglyphs; it seems as though there was a priest class that left ancient Egypt and preserved heiroglyphic usage and meaning in Mali; <Laird Scranton- Sacred Symbols of the Dogon>

·         Djinguereber Mosque (1327 CE: Islamic; Timbuktu)

·         Great Mosque of Djenne (13th c.CE: Sudano-Sahelian Islamic; Djenne)

·         Sidi Yahya Mosque (1440 CE: Islamic; Timbuktu)

·         Timbuktu (10th c.CE: Tuareg)



·         Chinguetti Mosque (13th c.CE: Islamic; second oldest minaret still in use; Chinguetti)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Ifri N’Ammar [MA](3117 BCE: Neolithic cave: rock drawings; star stones- Hydra, Ursa Major, Leo, Virgo, Serpens Caput, Lyra, Aquila; Nado, Rif; near Afso)

·         Jebel Irhoud

·         Lixus (7th c.BCE: Phoenician; megalithic cyclopean ruins are similar to Mayan and Aztec ruins; Larache)

·         Koutoubia Mosque (1158 CE: Islamic; Marrakech)

·         Mzora/Msoura [MA](3117 BCE: Neolithic: stone circle-167 monoliths surrounding 55m dia. tumulus; megalith star stones- Ophiuchus; 25km S Asilah)

·         Mogador/Essaouira (5th c.BCE: Phoenician; Carthaginian navigator Hanno)

·         Sidi Abderrhaman (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)

·         Tamuda (3rd c.BCE: Mauretanians; Tetouan)

·         Volubilis (Neolithic; 3rd c.BCE: Carthaginian; Roman)



·         Agadez Mosque (1515 CE: Islamic; Agadez)


SOUTH AFRICA: [Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site (CHWHS)]

·         Blombos Cave (80000 BP: ochre engravings, bone tools, shell beads; 140000 BP: fishing; Mosselbay)

·         Cango Caves (Oudtshoorn)

·         Coopers Cave [CHWHS](1.8m BP; Gauteng)

·         Duinefontein (400000 BP: stone tools, animal bones; Cape Town)

·         Gladysvale Cave [CHWHS] (1.8m BP; Gauteng)

·         Hoedjiespunt (Middle Pleistocene; Saldanha Bay)

·         Klasies River Caves (Paleolithic; Mesolithic; Humansdorp)

·         Kromdraai [CHWHS] (Gauteng)

·         Makapansgat (2.6-3 m BP; Mokopane)

·         Mapungubwe (1075 CE: pre-colonial state)

·         Motsetsi [CHWHS] (Gauteng)

·         Plovers Lake [CHWHS] (Gauteng)

·         Saldanha Bay (250-28k BP: tropical-Neanderthal; Capetown)

·         Sterkfontein [CHWHS] (Gauteng; Krugersdorp)

·         Swartkrans [CHWHS] (Sterkfontein)

·         Sibudu Cave (72000 BP; Tongaat)

·         Taung



·         Buhen (1860 BCE: 12th d.Senusret III; settlement; fortress; Hyksos-Hatsheput; Egyptian border)

·         Jebel Barkal (1450 BCE: Thutmose III; Merowe; swastikas in pottery)

·         El Kadada Dolmen (4000 BCE; Shendi; Khartoum)

·         El Kurru (750 BCE: royal Kushite tombs; Tangasi)

·         Kawa (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; stelas; Dongola)

·         Kerma (7500 BCE: Meso-Neolithic; 2500 BCE: Kushite ruins; 3rd cataract of Nile)

·         Meroe [MA](Neolithic; 800 BCE: Kushite pyramids; 5-6th cataract of Nile; Khartoum)

·         Musawwarat es-Sufra (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Shendi)

·         Naga (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Shendi)

·         Napata [SM] (1345 BCE: royal Kushite tombs; cult center ruins; Temple of Amun; Egyptian; Jebel Barkel; Karima)

·         Nubian pyramids at Meroe (4000-300 BCE: Kushite Kingdoms: royal tombs)

·         Nuri (750 BCE: royal kushite tombs)

·         Sai (Hyksos-Hatsheput; Kushite; Nubian desert)

·         Sanam (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Merowe)

·         Seddenga (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Kosha)

·         Semna/Amara West (1965 BCE: Senusret I; fortress; Hyksos-Hatsheput; Kushite; Nubian desert)

·         Soleb (750 BCE: Egyptian ruins; Kosha)

·         Tebu/Pnubs (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Kerma)

·         Wad Ban Naqa (750 BCE: Kushite ruins; Pyramid of Amanishakheto; Shendi)



[NOTE 67] The central city of Atlantis (destroyed c.10000 BCE? during global <deluge> cataclysm, or 1450 BCE? during the time of Moses and the Exodus), from the descriptions of Plato, is known to have 3 concentric canal rings, with a cross intersecting and canal emerging from the center point; which is symbolized by the ringed cross in Celtic and Christian traditions (sim. symbols: zodiac, sun; 2D symbol represents a 3D vortex experience- a stargate technology?); (William Henry)


[NOTE 68] Atlantis was a global <circum-navigating> civilization distributed all over the world, established on islands and coast lines; most active in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean (outside and inside the Strait of Gibraltar, aka. “Pillars of Hercules”; see also NOTES on s. Spain); the deluge submerged Atlantis and its evidence for existence; an earlier phase of Atlantean prehistory was rooted in Mesopotamia; (Graham Hancock)

[NOTE 69] Atlantean trans-ocean ships (sim. 2500 BCE: Khufu’s ship; Greeks, Phoenicians), were more advanced than clipper ships, with navigator priests who read the stars to guide their path (eg.Atlas’s mapping method); Plato tells about a maritime war between the Atlanteans and the Greeks

[NOTE 74] <East-West> Navigation was possible through the measurement of time, or taking into account the Earth’s wobble, and the Precession of the Equinoxes; the Earth spinning on axis gave the appearance of the zodiac constellations moving along the horizon- the ancient navigator-priests knew the rate of zodiac movement, and hence knew longitudinal distances and designated measuring systems (see Giza, Egypt as an encoding of geometry, earth measurement)

·         Carthage [Phoen.: “New City” (Qart-hadast); New Atlantis?] (Sea Peoples?; 1st m. BCE: Phoenician; Roman; Tunis; replica of central city of Atlantis? w/concentric ringed canals)

·         Kerkouane (4th-3rd c.BCE: Phoenician; Roman; Kelibia; Cape Bon)

·         Mosque of Uqba (670 CE: Islamic; Kairouan)

·         Utica (1100 BCE: Phoenician; Roman; Tunis)



·         Broken Hill (250-28k BP: tropical-Neanderthal)


ZIMBABWE: (Rhodesia)

·         Great Zimbabwe [t.Shona: ”huge stone buildings”] (1200 CE; Masvingo/Ft.Victoria)






ABKHAZIA: (former USSR; approximately 3000 megalithic monuments are known in the western Caucasus w/more constantly being found)

·         Gelendzhik [MA](4000-2000 BCE: Neolithic: 3 dolmens in a row on a hill above Zhane r.; near pyramidal dolmen in Mamed Canyon; Black Sea coast; Gelendzhik)



·         Buddhas of Bamyan [SR](507/554 CE: Hazarajat; destroyed)

·         Chakhil-i-Ghoundi Stupa (2nd-3rd c.CE: Greco-Buddhist/Hellenistic-Indian; Hadda; Jalalabad)

·         Dargah Pir Rattan Nath (5th c.CE: Hindu-Ganesh; Kabul)

·         Hadda (2nd-1st c.BCE: Greco-Buddhist artifacts; Jalalabad)


ARMENIA: (p.USSR) (301 CE: world’s first Christian nation)

·         Akhtala monastery (8th c.BCE: bronze, clay, iron items; 576 rectangular stone sepulchers; 5th c.: aka.Agarak; 10th c.CE: Bagratunis-Gurgen fortified Armenian Apostolic Church; St. Astvatsatseen/Holy Virgin church; Akhtala, Yerevan)

·         Aramus (Kotayk, Armenia)

·         Garni Temple (3rd m.BCE: first settlements; 8th c.BCE: Urartian; 3rd c.BCE: summer residence for Armenian Orontid and Artaxiad royalty; 1st c.CE: Roman temple- Tethys, Oceanus, Thetis; last refuge of k.Mithridates; Azat r.; Goght, Yerevan, Kotayk)

·         Geghard [“spear” which had wounded Jesus during the Crucifixion]/ Ayrivank [“monastery of the cave”] monastery (f. Saint Gregory the Illuminator; 4th c.CE: monastery complex; 9th c.: d.by Arabs- burned manuscripts; earthquake dmg.; 12th c.: relic- spearhead that wounded Christ on the cross allegedly brought by Apostle Thaddeus; relics of the Apostles Andrew and John; 1215: Armenian; Katoghike tympanum, Gavit, rock-cut church with spring, Jhamatun, tomb, Chapel of S.Grigor; Azat r.; Goght, Yerevan, Kotayk)

·         Goshavank [“monastery of Gosh”] (older monastery- Nor Ghetik d.earthquke in 1188; 12-13th c.CE: Armenian; complex- 3 churches: Saint Astvatsatsin, Saint Gregory, Saint Gregory the Illuminator, double chapel, single chapel, gavit, bell tower, book depository, school, gallery; Khachkars; Gosh)

·         Haghartsin monastery (13th c.CE: Armenian; complex- 3 churches: Saint Astvatsatsin, Saint Gregory, Saint Stepanos, refectory; Bagratuni sepulcher; Dilijan, Tavush)

·         Haghpat monastery (10th c.CE: Armenian; Alaverdi, Lori)

·         Harich (2nd c.BCE: fortress town)

·         Harichavank/Harich monastery (7th c.CE: Armenian; Harich, Shirak)

·         Hovhannavank Karapet/Saint John the Baptist monastery (f.Saint Gregory the Enlightener; 4th c.CE: Saint Karapet; single nave basilica; 1216-21 CE: Gandzasar-Armenian centerpiece; Kasagh r.; Ohanavan, Aragatsotn)

·         Kecharis monastery (1003 CE: 1st structure- Saint Grigor church; 11th c.CE: Surb Nshan church; 13th c.CE: Katoghike church; 1220: Surb Harutyun; Armenian; 2 chapels, gavit; Tsarkhadzor)

·         Khor Virap monastery (642 CE: orig.church: Saint Gevorg Chapel; 17th c.CE: Saint Astvatsatsin; where Saint Gregory the Illuminator was incarcerated for 13 yrs by the pagans; Mt. Ararat, Lusarat)

·         Metsamor [MA](5000 BCE: Neolithic: stone circles; Metsamor; nuclear power plant)

·         Noravank monastery (f.1205 CE: Armenian; complex- churches: S.Karapet, S.Grigor, S.Astvatsatsin; Vayots Dzor)

·         Sanahin monastery (10th c.CE: Armenian; Alaverdi, Lori)

·         Sevanavank monastery (874 CE: Armenian; l.Sevan; Sevan, Gegharkunik)

·         Tatev monastery (4th c.CE: 1st chapel; 8th c.CE: Armenian; complex- 895-906: St.Paul and St.Peter church; 836-48: early constr.- rebuilt St.Gregory in 1295; 905: Gazavan- 8m pendulous pillar; 11th c.CE: Astvatsatsin; earthquake in 1931; Tatev, Syunik)

·         Zorats Karer [MA](7600-4500 BCE: Neolithic: Karahunj stone circle observatory; temple ded.to Armenian sun-god Ari?; star stones- Cygnus-Deneb; Bronze-Iron Age: necropolis: 223 large stone tombs; 300 BCE-300 CE: Hellenistic-Roman: place of refuge; Sisian, Syunik)

·         Zvartnots (Yereven, Armavir)

·         Zvartnots Cathedral (642-53 CE: Armenian Apostolic; Echmiatsin, Vagharshapat, Yereven)



·         Ateshgah of Baku [“Fire Temple”](17th-18th c.CE: Hindu/Zorastrian temple-castle; 1883 CE: abandoned; pentagonal complex; Surakhani; Baku)

·         Bibi-Heybat Mosque (1281 CE: Shirvan Islamic; Baku)

·         Gandzasar monastery (1216-38 CE: Armenian; relics of Saint Zaechariah; bas-reliefs- crucifixion, adam and eve; Vank, Martakert, Nagorno-Karabakh)

·         Gobustan [MA](20000 BCE: rock painting; petroglyphs; btwn.Pirsagat and Sumgait r.; 40 mi. SW Baku)



·         Khamis Mosque (692 CE: Islamic; Khamis)


BANGLADESH: [Buddhist/Jain/Hindu temples (mandir), monasteries]

·         Chandranath Temple (accd.to Hindu sacred texts, where the arm of Goddess Sati fell; Sitakunda)

·         Comilla Jagannath Temple (16th c.CE: Hindu)

·         Dhakeshwari Temple (12th c.CE: Hindu; Dhaka)

·         Dhamrai Jagannath Rath (19th c.CE: chariot temple; Dhamrai)

·         Jagannath Temple/Handial Mandir (1300 CE: Hindu; Pabna)

·         Jeshoreshwari Kali Temple (13th c.CE: Hindu; Ishwaripur; Satkhira)

·         Kal Bhairab (19th c.CE: Shaivite-Hindu; giant Shivalinga; Medda; Brahmanbaria; Chittagong)

·         Kantajew Temple (1702-52 CE: Hindu; terracotta; earthquake dmg; Dinajpur)

·         Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque (1704-5 CE: Islamic; Dhaka)

·         Puthia Temple Complex (1815 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Rajshahi)

·         Ramna Kali Mandir (1000 BP: Kali-Hindu; 1971 CE: destroyed by Pakistan Army; Dhaka)

·         Somapura Mahavihara (810 CE: monastery; Naogaon)

·         Taherpur Temple (1480 CE: Hindu; Rajshahi)


BHUTAN: [Buddhist temples, stupa, fortress (dzong)]

·         Chagri Dorjeden Monastery (1620 CE)

·         Choedrak Monastery (1234 CE; near Tharpaling monastery)

·         Chorten Charo Kasho (19th c.CE: stupa; Trongsa)

·         Chorten Kora (18th c.CE: stupa; Trashiyangtse; Kulong Chu r.)

·         Dungtse Lhakhang (1421/1433 CE: monastery; Paro)

·         Gangkhar Puensum [SM] [“Three Mountain Siblings”]

·         Gangtey Monastery (1450 CE: Wangdue Phodrang d.)

·         Jambay Lhakhang (659 CE: monastery; Bumthang/Jakar)

·         Jomolhari/Chomolhari [SM] [aka.”the bride of Kangchenjunga”](Tib.: abode of Jomo protector goddess bound by Guru Padmasambhava; Jomolhari Temple, meditation caves of Milarepa and Gyalwa; Thangthangkha; Jangothang; Jomo Lharang holy lake)

·         Kongchogsaum Lhakhang/Tsilung (8th c.CE: central Bhutan)

·         Kungzandra (8th c./1488 CE: monastery; Tang valley)

·         Kurjey Lhakhang (monastery; Bumthang)

·         Kyichu Lhakhang (7th c.CE: Paro)

·         Lhuentse Dzong (1543)

·         Nalanda Buddhist Institute (1754 CE: Punakha Dzongkhag)

·         Simtokha Dzong (1629 CE; Thimphu)

·         Taktsang Dzong (1692 CE: Paro)

·         Tamshing Lhakhang (1501: Bumthang)

·         Tango Monastery (13th c.CE; Thimphu)

·         Thowadra Monastery (1238 CE; Tang v.)

·         Trongsa Dzong (1543 CE; Trongsa)

·         Zugne (7th c.CE; Bumthang)


BURMA/MYANMAR: [1431 CE: Arakanese; Buddh. pagoda = kyaik; stupa = paya]

·         Amarapura (1816 CE: Pahtodawgyi Buddh. stupa; 1847 CE: Kyautawgyi Paya Buddh. stupa)

·         Ananda Temple (1105 CE: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Andaw Thein (1515; Mrauk U; Rakhine)

·         Bandoola Kyaung Monastery

·         Bawbawgyi Pagoda (Pyay)

·         Bawbawlay Pagoda (Pyay)

·         Botataung Pagoda [“1000 military officers”](2500 BP?: Buddh.; Yangon)

·         Bupaya Pagoda (2nd or 11th c. CE: Buddh.; Ayeyarwady r.; Bagan)

·         Dhammayangyi Temple (1167 CE: largest Buddh.temple in Bagan)

·         Dhammayazika Pagoda (1121 CE: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Five Mahn Pagodas (Mingala-Mahn-Aung; Ratna-Mahn-Aung; Sakya-Mahn-Aung; Lawka-Mahn-Aung; Zina-Mahn-Aung)

·         Gawdawpalin Temple (1211 CE: Buddh.; 1975 CE: earthquake dmg; Bagan)

·         Hpaung Daw U Pagoda (Inle l.; Shan)

·         Htilominlo Temple (1105 CE: Buddh.; 1975 earthquake dmg; Bagan)

·         Htukkanthein Temple (1571; Mrauk U; Rakhine)

·         Koe-thaung Temple (1553; Mrauk U; Rakhine)

·         Kuthodaw Pagoda (1857 CE: Theravada Buddh.; 729 kyauksa gu/stone inscription caves w/Tipitaka in Pali; Mandalay)

·         Kyaikpun Paya (Bago)

·         Kyaiktiyo Pagoda [“pagoda; to carry on the hermit’s head;” aka.“Golden Rock”](Kyaiktiyo m.; Mon)

·         Le-myet-hna Temple (1535: Shite-thuang; Mrauk U; Rakhine)

·         Mahabodhi Temple (1200s CE: Buddh; modeled after Mahabodhi, Bihar; Bagan)

·         Maha Kalyani Paya (Bago)

·         Mahamuni Buddha Temple (1785 CE: Buddh.; Mandalay)

·         Mahazedi (Bago)

·         Manuha Temple (1067 CE: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Mawai-daw Kucku Pagoda (Shan)

·         Mingalazedi Pagoda (1284 CE: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Mingun Pagoda

·         Nanpaya Temple (Brahma-Hindu; Myinkaba; Bagan)

·         Nathlaung Kyaung Temple (1000s CE: Vishnu-Hindu; Bagan)

·         Payathonzu Temple [“Group of Three Buddhas”](middle ages: Buddh.; Mahayana-Tantric interior frescoes; Bagan)

·         Pindaya Caves (1773 CE: Buddh.; 8000 images of Buddha; Shan)

·         Ratana-pon (1612; Mrauk U)

·         Sanda Muni Temple

·         Shite-thaung Temple (1535; Mrauk U; Rakhine)

·         Shri Kali Temple (Hindu; Yangon)

·         Shwedagon Pagoda (2500 BP: legend; 6th c.CE: stupa; Yangon)

·         Shwegugale Paya (Bago)

·         Shwegugyi Temple (1131 CE: Buddh.; stone slabs in Pali; Bagan)

·         Shenandaw Monastery (1800s CE: Buddh.; Mandalay)

·         Shwemawdaw Paya [aka.”Golden God Temple”](10th c. CE: pagoda; Bago)

·         Shwesandaw Pagoda (1057 CE: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Shwesandaw Pagoda (Buddh.; Paya)

·         Shwethalyaung Buddha (994 CE: reclining Buddha temple; Bago)

·         Shwezigon Pagoda (1102 CE: Buddh.; Nyaung Oo; Bagan)

·         Sulamani Temple (1183 CE: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Sule Pagoda (2500 BP: Buddh.stupa; Yangon)

·         Tharabha/Sarabha Gate (middle ages: Buddh.; Bagan)

·         Thatbyinnyu Temple (mid-1100s CE: Buddh.; adj.Ananda Temple; Bagan)


CAMBODIA: [Angkor; derived from Sanskrit: “city” (nagara); wat/pagoda]

·         Angkor Thom (900 CE: Hindu temple complex: Angkor Wat (head of Draco), Bayon (center = galactic hub; heart of Draco), Phimeanakas, Preah Pithu, Preah Palilay, Phnom Bakheng; Preah Khan, Ta Keo, Prasat Kravanh, Prasat Kok Po, Prasat Phnom Rung, Prasat Roluh, Prasat Ak Yom, Prasat Kas Ho, Western Mebon, Prasat Ta Noreay, Prasat Trapeang Ropou, Baphuon, Neak Pean, Ta Som, Eastern Mebon, Pre Rup, Ta Prohm, Banteay Kdei, Sras Srang, Banteay Samre, Khleangs, Terrace of the Elephants, Terrace of the Leper King, Thommanon; irrigation system; Hancock: 5 ‘churning of the milky ocean’ sculpture bridges: 54 asuras and 54 devas = 108 churners x5 bridges = 540; each bridge leads to a portal; Draco star mapping: temple complex layout on site plan matches the Draco constellation orientation from 10500 BCE Siem Reap)

Phnom Bok [SM] (900 CE: Hindu hill temple; Siem Reap)

Phnom Dei [SM] (900 CE: Hindu hill temple; Siem Reap)

Phnom Krom [SM] (9th c.CE: Shiva-Vishnu-Brahma hill temple; Siem Reap)

Phnom Kulen [SM] (Siem Reap)

·         Angkor Wat [MA](9th c.CE: Hindu cosmological temple symbolizing Mount Meru; Angkor Thom; Graham Hancock: 2x/annum- on March 21st and September 21st, equinox alignments; scaled to Hindu cycles of time (cycle 1/<age>- 1,728,000 years/1728 cubits; cycle 2-4 <ages> also; relief: ‘churning of the milky ocean’; ocean = whole universe; represents the law of precession of the zodiac constellations based on the Earth’s revolution and wobble; encoded precessional numbers: 72 temples; causeway: 3/4° from due E, representing 54 precessional years; offset gave a 3 day warning before the spring equinox; on equinox the Sun aligns with the central tower; star mirroring- Draco’s heart; temple complex layout on site plan matches the Draco constellation orientation from 10500 BCE- due N; Siem Reap)

[NOTE 90] (HANCOCK): 3 ancient civilizations (in Mexico, Egypt, and Cambodia), from different time periods, share commonalities- pyramidal, god-king, cult of immortality, astronomer-priests, sacred poisonous snake, contain hidden image of heavens (Orion’s belt; Draco); sky maps on the ground

·         Bakong (881 CE: Hindu-Shivaite temple; Hariharalaya, Ruluos)

·         Baksei Chamkrong [“Bird who Shelters Under Its Wings”](968 CE: Shiva temple; Siem Reap)

·         Banteay Prei Nokor (SE Kompong Cham)

·         Banteay Samre (Hindu; Angkor)

·         Banteay Srei (967 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Angkor)

·         Banteay Chhmar (12th c.CE; Thma Puok)

·         Baphuon (11th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Angkor Thom)

·         Bat Chum (10th c.CE; Srah Srang, Angkor)

·         Bayon (1200 CE: Mahayana Buddh.; Hindu-Theravada temple; Angkor Thom; Siem Reap)

·         Beng Mealea (12th c.CE: Vishnu temple; E Angkor)

·         Chau Say Tevoda (12th c.CE; Thommanon)

·         Drukhsh (12th c.CE: Vishnu-Hindu temple; Theravada Buddh.; Siem Reap)

·         East Baray (900 CE; near Angkor Thom)

·         Kbal Romaas (Neolithic)

·         Kbal Spean (11-13th c.CE: 1000 lingas; Kulen hills)

·         Koh Ker (928 CE; NE Angkor)

·         Koulen

·         Krol Ko (12th c.CE: Buddhist temple; Angkor)

·         Lolei (9th c.CE: Shivaite; Ruluos)

·         Phimeanakas (910 CE: royal marriage rite naga temple; Angkor Thom; Siem Reap)

·         Phnom Bakheng [SM](900 CE: 1st Angkor Shiva-Hindu temple; Angkor Thom; Siem Reap)

·         Phnom Chisor (11th CE: Hindu; S Phnom Penh)

·         Phnom Laang (Paleolithic)

·         Prasat Andat (7th c.CE: Hindu; Kampong Svay; Kampong Thom)

·         Prasath Kasaouit

·         Prasat Kravanh (921 CE: Hindu temple; Angkor Thom; Siem Reap)

·         Prasat Kuh Nokor (10th-11th c.CE: Buddhist temple; Baray)

·         Prasat Phum Prasat (706 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Kampong Thom)

·         Preah Khan (1191 CE: Buddhist temple; Angkor Thom; Siem Reap)

·         Preah Ko (879 CE: Shivite; Hariharalaya)

·         Preah Vihear (11th-12th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Dangrek m.; Preah Vihear)

·         Ruluos [“Temples”] (9th c.CE: temples: Bakong, Lolei, Preah Ko; Hariharalaya)

·         Sambor Prei Kuk (7th c.CE; Kompong Thom)

·         Spean Thma [ka.“bridge of stone”](Ta Keo; Angkor; between Angkor Thom and Eastern Baray)

·         Ta Keo (1000 CE: Shiva-Hindu temple mountain; Angkor Thom)

·         Ta Nei (12th c.CE; Angkor)

·         Thommanon (12th c.CE: Vishnu-Shiva-Hindu; Siem Reap)

·         Tonle Bati (12th c.CE; S Phnom Penh)

·         Wat Athvea/Prasat Vat Althea (12th c.CE: Hindu-Buddh.; Angkor)

·         Wat Bakan (1200 CE)

·         West Baray (713 CE/11th c.CE; W Angkor Thom)

·         West Mebon (11th c.CE: Hindu; Angkor)

·         Yasodharapura [“Holy/Capital City”] (899-917 CE; Phnom Bakheng)


CHINA: [Taoist and Buddhist temples (si/gong); Tibetan monasteries][SM]

Expansion of Bronze Age sites (2200-256 BCE: Xia-Shang-Zhou d.; near copper and tin ores):

19-16th c.BCE: Shang d.; Yellow r.- Anyang (epicenter), Zhengzhou, Dengfeng, Erlitou, Luoyang, Xia Xian

16-14th c.BCE: Shang d.; Yellow r.- Anyang, Zhengzhou, Erlitou, Luoyang; Yangzi r.- Panlongcheng

15-11th c.BCE: Shang d.; Yellow r.- Anyang, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Hui Xian, Xun Xian, Lingbao, Yonghe, Shilou, Suide, Baode, Xin Xian, Gaocheng; Huai r.- Jiashan, Funan; Yangzi r.- Changxing, Feixi, Panlongcheng, Chongyang, Changsha, Ningxiang, Liliing, Changning; Qingjiang; Wuming

13-11th c.BCE: Shang d.; High Yinxu, Anyang phase; Yellow r.- Anyang, Zhengzhou, Wen Xian, Luoyang; Huai r.- Tianmen

11-10th c.BCE: Western Zhou d.; Lingyuan, Kezue; Yellow r.-Xingtai, Anyang, Changzhi, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Lihtong, Chang-an, Jingyang, Fufeng, Qishan, Baoji, Lingtai, Shilou; Yangzi r.- Peng Xian

1000-771 BCE: Western Zhou d.; Yellow r.- Feicheng, Anyang, Luoyang, Fufeng, Meishan, Qishan; Huai r.- Sui Xian, Jingshan

770-476 BCE: Spring and Autumn period of Eastern Zhou d.; Tangshan, Hunyuan/Liyu; Yellow r.- Luoyang, Hui Xian, Feicheng, Xinzheng, Shangcunling/Shan Xian, Houma, Changzhi; Huai r.- Shou Xian; Yangzi r.- Wujin, Yandunshan, Tunxi, Tonglushan, Jingshan, Sui Xian, Jiangling, Hengshan, Gongcheng

475-221 BCE: Warring States period; Eastern Zhou d.; Yellow r.- Pingshan, Hui Xian, Jincun, Luoyang, Shan Xian, Xianyang, Xingping; Yangzi r.- Sui Xian, Jiangling, Changsha, Xiangxiang, Fuling, Chengdu, Shizhaishan, Jiangchuan; Zhaoying

206 BCE-8 CE: Western Han d.; Yellow r.- Mancheng, Luoyang, Wuwei, Anxi, Dunhuang; Yangzi r.- Changsha, Shizhaishan, Jiangchuan

·         Ani Tsankhung Nunnery (7th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Badachu [“Eight Great Sites”] (Eight Buddhist temples; Shijingshan, Beijing)

1)  Changan Temple (Temple of Eternal Peace)

2)  Dabei Temple (Temple of Great Mercy)

3)  Dragon Spring Nunnery

4)  Lingguang Temple (temple of Divine Light)

5)  Pearl Cave (The Cave of Precious Pearl)

6)  Sanshan Nunnery (Three-hill Nunnery)

7)  Xiangjie Temple (The Temple of the Fragrant World)

8)  Zhengguo Temple

·         Bailin Temple [“Monastery of the Cypress Grove”](1347 CE: Yuan d. Buddhist temple; Beijing)

·         Baimasi [“White Horse Temple”] [SR](Eastern Han d.: 1st Buddhist temple in China?; Luoyang)

·         Banpo (4500 BCE: Yangshao)

·         Bao’ensi (1440 CE: Buddhist monastery complex; Sichuan)

·         Baoguangsi (Tang d.Buddhist temple-pagoda; Chengdu)

·         Baoguosi/Lingshan Temple (880 CE: Tang d.Mahayana Buddhist; Jiangbei, Ningbo, Zhejiang)

·         Bashidang (5540 BCE: Pengtoushan culture: Lixian, Hunan)

·         Beifudi (7-8000 BCE: Cishan-Xinglongwa cultures: pottery masks, carved relief, altars, evidence of burned burials on raised platforms; stone tools, ceramic pots, subterranean cave shelters, sacrificial sites, jade pieces; Yi, Baoding, Hebei)

·         Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves [SR](5th c.CE; Turpan-Loulan)

·         Bingling Temple cave (420 CE: giant Buddhas; Lanzhou, Gansu)

·         Beiyuemiao [“Northern Peak Temple”] (2nd c.BCE: Han; Northern Wei/Tang; Quyang, Heibei)

·         Bozikeli Qian Fo Dong/Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves [SR](5th-9th c.CE: 77 rock-cut caves; arched ceilings; Buddhist murals; Turpan-Shanshan; near Gaochang ruins; Mutou valley; Taklamakan desert)

·         Buchasergyi Lakang (Nyingchi, Tibet)

·         Buchu Sergyi Lhakhang (7th c.CE: Buddh. Monastery; Bayi, Tibet)

·         Chang’an/Xian [SR](1 CE: ancient capital)

·         Changchun Temple (1592 CE: Ming d. Buddhist temple; Xuanwu, Beijing)

·         Cheng’en Temple (Sui d.; 1510 CE: Ming d. Buddhist temple; Beijing)

·         Chenghuangmiao [“City God Temple”]/Jinshan God Temple (1403 CE: Ming; Taoist temple; Shanghai)

·         Chengling Pagoda (540 CE; Zhengding)

·         Chengtoushan (4500 BCE: earliest rice field- Changde, Hunan)

·         Chengxu Temple (1086 CE: Song; Taoist temple; Zhouzhuang)

·         Chengziya AS (2500 BCE: Longshan settlement; Jinan, Shandong)

·         Chokorgyel Monastery (1509 CE: Buddhist; Metoktang v. Tibet)

·         Dabeilou (1500 BP: Buddhist-part of Zhantanlin Temple; Jiuhuashan)

·         Dafosi (1000+ BP: Buddhist; Xinchang, Zhejiang)

·         Dahuisi [“Temple of Great Wisdom”](1513 CE: Ming d.Buddhist temple; Beijing)

·         Dajue Temple [“Great Awakening Temple/Temple of Enlightenment”] /Qingshui [“Clear Water Temple”](1068 CE: Liao d.Buddhist temple; 1428 CE: Ming d.rebuilt; Haidian, Beijing)

·         Daxiangguosi (555 CE: Buddhist; Kaifeng, Henan)

·         Dazhaosi (1579 CE: Buddhist temple; Hohhot; Inner Mongolia)

·         Dazhong Temple [“Big Bell Temple”]/Juesheng Temple (1733 CE: Qing d.Buddhist temple; Beijing)

·         Dazu Shike/Rock Carvings (7th c.CE: Buddhist-Confucian-Taoist; 75 sites; 50000 statues, 100000 inscription carvings; Dazu, Chongqing, Sichuan; Baodingshan and Beishan)

·         Donglinsi [“East Wood Temple”](Tang d.: Pure Land Buddhist monastery; Jiujiang, Jiangxi; Lushan)

·         Drepung Monastery [“Rice Heap”](1416 CE: Buddhist; m.Gephel; Lhasa)

·         Drigung Monastery (1179 CE; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Dunhuang [“Blazing Beacon”](Han d.: pilgrimage site; Gansu)

·         Erligang (Shang d. bronze settlement; Henan)

·         Erlitou (Shang d. bronze settlement; Henan)

·         Fahai Temple [SR](1439 CE: Ming d.Buddhist temple; Shijingshan, Beijing)

·         Famensi (Northern Zhou d. Buddhist temple and pagoda; Fufeng; Xian, Shaanxi)

·         Fawangsi (Tang d.: Buddhist temple; 2 pagodas; Dengfeng, Henan; Songshan)

·         Fayusi/Stone Temple (1699 CE: Qing d.Buddhist temple; Zhejiang; Putuoshan)

·         Fayuan Temple (645 CE: Tang d.Buddhist temple; Ming d.rebuilt; Beijing)


·         Five Sacred Mountains of Taoism: [SM]

1)  E-Taishan [“Leading Peaceful Mountain”](Paleo-Neolithic; 3000 BP: religious worhip; Shang d.-Qing d.; Qin d.: Daimiao Temple; Dongyue Temple; Zengfu; Yellow r.; Tai’an, Shandong)

2)  W-Huashan [“Splendid Mountain”](2nd c.BCE: Taoist temple-Shrine of the Western Peak; immortality herbs- Kou Qianzhi; Chen Tuan revelations; Cloister of the Jade Spring dedicated to Chen Tuan; Quanzhen School; Weinan; Huayin; Yellow r.; Xian, Shaanxi)

3)  S-Nan Hengshan/Nan Yue [“Balancing Mountain”](8th c.CE: Buddhist monastery- Zhushengsi; Zhurong Gong; 725 CE: Heaven Governor Huo King Temple/South Heaven Genuine Master Temple/Grand Temple of Mount Heng; Hengyang, Hunan)

4)  N-Bei Hengshan [“Permanent Mountain”](Han d.: Beiyue Miao, “Shrine of the Northern Peak”; 491 CE: Xuankongsi/Buddhist Hanging Monastery; Xinzhou-Yuanping; Hongdao-Dingxiang, Shanxi)

5)  C-Songshan [“Lofty Mountain”](477 CE: Shaolin Temple- birth of Zen Buddhism, largest collection of stupas in China; Pagoda Forest; 523 CE: Songyue Pagoda; Tang d.: Fawang Temple pagodas; Dengfeng; Yellow r.; Zhengzhou, Henan)



·         Foguangsi (857 CE: Tang d.Buddhist temple; East Hall; 1137 CE: Hall of Grand Temple of Mount Heng/Heaven Governor Huo King Temple/South Heaven Genuine Master Temple (725 CE: Buddhist temple; Hengyang, Hunan; Nan Hengshan)

·         Forbidden City (1406 CE: Ming d.capital; Beijing)

·         Foshan Ancestral Temple (Song d.; 1372 CE: Ming d.: Taoist temple; Foshan, Guandong)


·         Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains: [SM]

1)  Emeishan [“Delicate Eyebrow Mountain”](1st c.CE: 1st Buddhist temple built in China; Ming-Qing d.: 76 Buddhist monasteries; Baoguosi; Leiyinsi; Qingyinge; grottoes; Yangzi r; Leshan, Sichuan)

2)  Jiuhuashan/Lingyangshan [“Nine Glories Mountain”](Temples: 1500 BP: Huacheng; 598 CE: Guoqing; Dabeilou; Baisuigong; Qiyuansi; Roushen; Tianchi; Zhantanlin; Zhiyuan; Yangzi r.; Chizhou, Anhui)

3)  Putuoshan [“Potalaka Mountain”](Temples: Puji; Fayu; Shanghai; Zhoushan is., Zhejiang)

4)  Wutaishan [“Five Terrace Plateau Mountain”](53 sacred monasteries; Major Temples: Yuan d.: Nanshan <lower 3 terraces-Jile; middle-Shande; upper 3-Youguo; Xiantong; Tayuan; Pusading; Inner Temples: Shouning; Bishan; Puhua; Dailuo Ding; Shuxiang; Guangzong; Yuanzhao; Guanyin Dong; Longquan; Luomuhou; 767 CE: Jinge; Zhenhai; Wanfo-ge; Guanhai; Zhulin; Jifu; Gufo “Old Buddha”; Outer Temples: Jin d.: Yangqing; 782 CE: Nanchan; Tang d.: Mimi; 857 CE: Foguang; 1158 CE: Yanshan; Tang d.: Zunsheng; Jin d.: Guangji; Tang d.: oldest existing wooden buildings; Shanxi)

o    Everest Mount [Tibetan: “Saint Mother” (Qomolangma Peak); Chinese: “Earth Mother” (Zhumulangma Feng/Shengmu Feng)](highest mountain on Earth; Rongbuk monastery)

o    Huangmeishan (Chan/Zen- East Mountain Teaching; Yangzi r.; Hubei)

o    Jizu Mount/Nine Stratta Cliffs (Temples: Shu k.: nunneries; Tang-Ming-Qing d.: Zunsheng Tower, Xitansi, Shizhongsi, Huayansi, Jindingsi, Zhushengsi, Lengyan pagoda, Jiguansi, Dajuesi; Dali, Yunnan)

o    Kailash Mount [Skt.:”crystal”] (sacred place of five religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Ayyavazhi, Bon; Manasarowar and Rakshastak Lakes; Tibet)

o    Lushan (402 CE: Hui-yuan founded Pure Land Buddhism here; Yangzi r.; Jiangxi)

o    Miaofengshan (Grand Canal; near Beijing; Hebei)

o    Nan Wutaishan (Yellow r.; Shaanxi)

o    Tiantaishan (Zhejiang)

o    Wangtan (Zhejiang)


·         Ganden Monastery (1409 CE; Lhasa, Tibet): first school of Tibetan medicine (5th Dalai Lama); later a medical school and hospital was built at Chagpori, near Lhasa; sMan-rtsis-khan (r.13th Dalai Lama; where Dr.Yeshi Donden trained) new college of astrology and medicine was built in Lhasa

·         Gaochang Ruins [SR](1st c.BCE; Turpan, Xinjiang)

·         Guanghuasi (558 CE: Buddhist temple; Fujian)

·         Gufosi (Qing d.: Buddhist temple; Wutaishan)

·         Guiyuansi (1658 CE: Qing d.Buddhist temple; Wuhan/Hanyang City, Hubei)

·         Guoqingsi (598 CE: Sui d.Buddhist temple; Taizhou, Zhejiang; Tiantaishan)

·         Manasarovar/Manasa Sovara Lake (Hindu sacred lake; Kailash m.; Chiu Gompa; Tibet)

·         Manjusri; Zushi Pagoda; 6th c.CE: Songyue Pagoda; Wutaishan)

·         Giant Wild Goose Pagoda [SR](652 CE; Xian)

·         Great Mosque of Xian [SR](700 CE: Islamic; Xian, Shaanxi)

·         Great White Pyramid [SR](210 BCE: mound, subterraneanean burial chambers, necropolis; stepped-pyramidal mausoleum (open to sky) buried beneath earthen mound, w/E-W passages leading to the emperor Qin Shihuangdi’s tomb; rivers and seas of quicksilver/mercury; connected w/buried terra cotta army; Xian)

·         Great White Pagoda/Sarira Stupa of Tayuan Temple (1582: Ming Dynasty; Mt.Wutai)

·         Guanghan (Shang d. bronze settlement; Sichuan)

·         Guanghuasi (Buddhist temple; Xicheng, Beijing)

·         Guangjisi (Jin d.Buddhist temple; Wutaishan; Beijing)

·         Guangxiaosi [“Temple of Bright Filial Piety”](206 BCE: Buddhist; Guangzhou)

·         Guoqingsi (598 CE: Buddh.; Tiantai m.; Hangzhou, Zhejiang)

·         Gyang (11th c.CE: Tibetan Buddh.; Lhatse, Tibet)

·         Hanshansi [“Cold Mountain Temple”](502 CE: Buddhist temple-monastery; Fenqiao, Suzhou)

·         Haxiu (4000 BCE)

·         Hongluo Temple (Tand d.Buddhist Temple; Beijing)

·         Houjiazhuang (Shang d.; large tombs: 72 bronzes in 1004; 460 bronzes, 750 jades, 560 bone objects, 5 pottery obj., stone and ivory sculpture in tomb of Fu Hao; 191 burial pits; 1330 human and animal sacrifices; bone oracles; Xibeigang; Anyang)

·         Hua Pagoda (Tang d.; Zhengding)

·         Huaisheng Mosque (650 CE: Islamic; Guangzhou)

·         Huangpi Panlongcheng (Shang culture bronze settlement; Hubei)

·         Huqiusi [“Tiger Hill Temple”](327 CE: Buddhist; Suzhou, Jiangsu)

·         Id Kah Mosque [SR](1442 CE: Islamic; Kashgr, Xinjiang)

·         Jiahu (7000 BCE: Peiligang culture; Luoyuan, Fujian)

·         Jianfusi [SR](684 CE: Tang d.Buddhist temple hosting Small Wild Goose Pagoda; ancient bells; Xian, Shaanxi)

·         Jiaohe Ruins [SR](108 BCE: Anterior Jushi capital; Turpan, Xinjiang)

·         Jietai Temple (Tang d.Buddhist temple; Mentougou, Beijing)

·         Jimingsi (557 CE: Liang d.Buddhist temple; 1387 CE: rebuilt; Nanjing)

·         Jing’ansi [“Temple of Peace and Tranquility”](247 CE: Wu k. Buddhist temple; 1216 CE: relocated; Shanghai)

·         Jinci Temple/Huiri Yongming Temple (954 CE: Buddhist; Hangzhou, Zhejiang)

·         Jingesi [“Golden Pavillion Temple”](767 CE: Buddhist; Shanxi; Wutaishan)

·         Jinsha (1000 BCE: Baodun culture; ivory, jade, bronze, gold, stone objects; Chengdu)

·         Jiaohe Ruins [SR](108 BCE: Jushi k.; Han d.; Turpan)

·         Jietai (Tang d. Buddhist temple; Mentougou, Beijing)

·         Jokhang/Tsuklakang (605-650 CE: early geomantic Tib.Buddh. temple; Barkhor Square, Lhasa)

·         Jonang (11th c.CE: Tibetan Buddh.; Phuntsholing, Tibet)

·         Kachu (11th c.CE: Tibetan Buddh.; Chimpu, Tibet)

·         Karma Gon Monastery (12th c.CE: Karma Kagyu sect, Tibetan Buddh.; Chamdo)

·         Katok Monastery (1159 CE: Tib.Buddh; Nyingma, Tibet)

·         Khorzhak Monastery (996 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Burang; Ngari, Tibet)

·         Kizil Caves [SR](3rd-8th c.CE: Buddhist frescoes; Baicheng, Xinjiang)

·         Kumbum (1427: Palcho Monastery; Gyantse Kumbum; Tibet)

·         Kyangbu (11th c.CE: Tibetan Buddh.; Gyantse, Tibet)

·         Lamaling Monastery (7th c.CE: Nyingmapa sect. Tib.Buddh.; Buchu, Burqug, Nyingchi, Tibet)

·         Linggusi (515 CE: Liang d. Buddhist temple-pagoda; Nanjing, Jiangsu; Zhongshan)

·         Lingxiao Pagoda (762 CE; Zhengding)

·         Lingyansi [“Temple of the Understanding Rocks”](357 CE; 11th c.CE: Buddhist; 1056 CE: Pizhi Pagoda; 167 stupa forest; Tai’an, Shandong; Taishan)

·         Lingyinsi [“Temple of the Soul’s Retreat”](328 CE: Eastern Jin d. Chan Buddhist temple; monastery; pagoda; Feilai Feng grottoes; Hangzhou, Zhejiang; Wulinshan)

·         Liuhe Pagoda (10th c.CE; d.1121 CE; r.1165 CE: Hangzhou, Zhejiang)

·         Liurongsi [“Six Banyan Trees Temple”](537 CE: Buddhist temple-pagoda; Guangzhou)

·         Longhuasi [“Luster of the Dragon Temple”](242 CE; 977 CE: rebuilt Chan Buddhist temple; pagoda; 500 Lohan; Shanghai)

·         Longmen Grottoes [“Dragon’s Gate”](316-907 CE: Cave/Grottoes: Northern Wei d.: Guyang, Middle Binyang, Lotus-flower, Weizi, Huangfugong; Sui d.: South Binyang; Tang d.: Fengxiansi, 10000 Buddha Cave, Hidden Stream Temple, Kanjingsi, Dawanwufo, North Binyang; Luoyang, Henan)

·         Longxingsi (1052 CE: Song d. Buddhist monastery; Zhengding, Hebei)

·         Louguantai (Taoist temple; where tradition says Laozi composed the daodejing; Ta Yu village; Zhouzhi, Shaanxi; Xian)

·         Manasarovar Lake (highest fresh water lake in world; 1200 mi. from Lhasa; Mount Kailash)

·         Melikawat ruins [SR](300 BCE; Hotan)

·         Menri Monastery [“medicine mountain”](1405 CE: Bön; Tibet)

·         Miaoying Temple (Liao-Yuan d. Buddhist temple; Xicheng, Beijing)

·         Milarepa’s/Namkading Cave (1052-1135 c.CE: Milarepa; Nyalam, Tibet)

·         Mimisi (Tang d. Buddhist; Wutaishan)

·         Mindroling Monastery (1676 CE: Nyingma school; Zhanang, Shannan, Tibet)

·         Mogao Caves/Grottoes/Caves of the Thousand Buddhas/Dunhuang Caves [SR] (366-1366 CE: Buddhist cave shrines and art; 406-1002 CE: manuscripts; Dunhuang, Gansu)

·         Muru/Meru Nyingba Monastery (7th c.CE: Buddh; Barkhor, Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Nanchansi (782 CE: Buddhist temple; Xinzhou; Wutaishan)

·         Nanhuasi (502 CE: Chan Buddhist monastery; near Caoqi; Shaoguan, Guangdong)

·         Nanputuosi (Tang d.: Buddhist temple; Xiamen, Fujian)

·         Narthang Monastery (1153 CE: Buddh.; Shigatse, Tibet)

·         Nechung Monastery/Sungi Gyelpoi Tsenkar [“the smaller dwelling;” “Demon Fortress of the Oracle King”](8th c.CE: Buddh.; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Niujie Mosque (996 CE; r.1622-1722 CE: Islamic; Beijing)

·         Niya/Jingjue [SR](1800 BCE: 100 dwellings, sickles, clubs, urns, human remains)

·         Ngor Ewam Choden (1429 CE: Sakyapa Tib.Tantric Buddh.; Shigatse, Tibet)

·         Nyethang Drolma Lhakhang (9th c.CE: Atisha Buddh. Monastery; Nyethang, Tibet)

·         Palcho/Pelkor Chode Monastery/Shekar Gyantse (1418 CE: Tib. Buddh.; Gyangze, Shigatse, Tibet)

·         Palpung Monastery (1727 CE: Tibetan Buddhist monastery; Dege, Sichuan)

·         Palyul (1665 CE: Nyingma Tib.Buddh.)

·         Potala Palace (637 CE: Tib.Buddh. Songsten Gampo; res. of Dalai Lama; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Pujichansi [“Chan Temple of Universal Salvation”] (916 CE: Chan Buddhist temple; Putuoshan)

·         Puningsi (1755 CE: Buddhist temple; Chengde, Hebei)

·         Putuo Zongchengsi (1767 CE: Buddhist temple; Chengde, Hebei)

·         Qianfoshan [“Thousand Buddha Mountain”](Sui d. carved Buddha relief in hill rock; Xingguochan Temple; Jinan, Shandong)

·         Qixiasi (489 CE: Buddhist temple; 1000 Buddha Caves grottoe; Nanjing, Jiangsu)

·         Ralung Monastery (1180 CE: Drukpa Tib.Buddh.; Tsang, Gyantse, Tibet)

·         Ramoche Temple (7th c.CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Rongbuk Monastery (1902 CE: Nyingma Tib.Buddh.; Everest m.; Dingri, Xigaze, Tibet)

·         Sakya Monastery [“pale earth”](1073 CE: Sakyapa Tib.Buddh.; Shigatse, Tibet)

·         Salu Monastery (1040 CE: Sakya Tib.Buddhist; Shigatse, Tibet)

·         Samding Monastery [“Temple of Soaring Meditation”](13th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Tibet)

·         Samye Gompa (775 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Shannan, Tibet)

·         Sanga Monastery (1409 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Sanxingdui [“Three Stars Mound”](1200 BCE: Baodun culture; bronze artifacts and mound; Guanghan, Deyang, Sichuan)

·         Sera Monastery (1419 CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.; Wangbur m.; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Shalu (11th c.CE: Tibetan Buddh.; Gyantse, Tibet)

·         Shanhuasi (11th c.CE: Buddhist temple; Datong, Shanxi)

·         Shaolinsi (477 CE: Buddhist temple-monastery; 791 CE: Pagoda Forest; Dengfeng, Henan; Songshan)

·         Shechen Monastery (1695 CE: Nyingma Tib.Buddh.; Derge, Tibet)

·         Shelkar [“crystal white”] Chode Monastery (1266 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Tingri, Tibet)

·         Shixianggou (Shang d. bronze settlement; Henan)

·         Shuanglinsi (6th c.CE: Buddhist temple; Pingyao, Shanxi)

·         Simbiling Monastery (Bon-Gelug Tib.Buddh.; Taklakot, above Purang, Ngari, Tibet)

·         Simenta [“Four Gates Pagoda”](523 CE: Buddhist pagoda; Shandong)

·         Small Wild Goose Pagoda (707 CE; Xian)

·         Tanzhe Temple [“Temple of Pool and Zhe Tree”](1700 BP: Jin d.Buddhist; Beijing)

·         Tashilhunpo Monastery (1447 CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.; Shigatse, Tibet)

·         Temple of Azure Clouds (1331 CE: Yuan d.Buddhist; Haidian, Beijing)

·         Temple of the Six Banyan Trees (537 CE: Buddhist; Guangzhou)

·         Terracotta Army (246 BCE: Xian)

·         Three Pagodas (824 CE; Yunnan)

·         Tianningsi (1100 c.CE: Liao d.Buddhist pagoda; Beijing)

·         Tomb of King Wen (122 BCE: Guangzhou)

·         Tradruk Temple (8th c.CE: early geomantic Tib.Buddh.; Nedong, Shannan, Tibet)

·         Tsi Nesar (7th c.CE: early geomantic Tib.Buddh. temple; near Drongtse monastery; Gyantse, Tibet)

·         Tsomon Ling (17th c.CE: Tib.Buddh. temple; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Tsozong Gongba Monastery [“Castle in a Lake”](1400 CE: Nyingma/Red Hat Tib.Buddh.; Assam Himalaya; Tibet)

·         Tuoshan [“Camel Mountain”](Northern Zhou-Tang d.: 638 Buddhas, 5 main grottoes: Tianhe “Sky River,” Tianqiao “Sky Bridge,” Tianquan “Heavenly Spring,” Wulong Pool, Tiannanmen “Gate of Southern Heaven gate;” Haotian Temple; Qingzhou, Shandong)

·         Tsurphu Monastery (1159 CE: Kagyu/Karmapa Tib.Buddh.; Gurum, Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Wanfusi (Chan-Zen temple; Huangbo m., Fujian)

·         Wanshou Temple (1577 CE: Ming d.Buddhist; Beijing)

·         Wofo Temple/Doulu temple (7th c.CE: Buddhist)

·         Wolongsi (168 CE: Buddhist; Xian)

·         Wulongmiao [“Five Dragons Temple“]/King Guangren’s Temple (833 CE: Tang d.; Taoist temple; contains China’s 2nd oldest wooden building; Ruicheng, Shanxi)

·         Wutasi [“Five Pagoda Temple”]/Zhenjuesi [“Temple of the Great Righteous Awakening”](1727 CE: Buddhist; Hohhot, Inner Mongolia)

·         Wusutu Zhao Monastery (1606 CE: Buddhist; Hohhot, Inner Mongolia)

·         Wuyang (7500-8500 BP: earliest bone oracle incriptions; Henan)

·         Xilitu Zhao (1585 CE: Lamaist temple; Hohhot; Inner Mongolia)

·         Xiaotun (Shang d.; village; sacrifice burials; source of oracle bones at Yinxu; Anyang)

·         Ximingsi (Tang d.Buddhist temple; Xian)

·         Xingjiaosi (669 CE: Buddhist temple-pagoda; Xian)

·         Xingtai <CC: 500 BCE: 20 patterns match modern crop circles in other countries>(1500 BCE: Shang dyn.; Qinghe co., Hebei)

·         Xuankongsi [“Hanging Temple”](1500 BP: Buddhist-Taoist-Confucian hanging monastery; Datong, Shanxi; Hengshan)

·         Xuanmiaoguan (276 CE: Western Jin d. Taoist temple; Suzhou)

·         Xumi Pagoda (636 CE; Zhengding)

·         Yan’an/Yanzhou (military stronghold; pilgrimage site; Shaanxi)

·         Yangqingsi (Jin d. Buddhist temple; Wutaishan)

·         Yanshansi (1158 CE: Buddhist temple; Wutaishan)

·         Yanshi (Shang d. bronze settlement; Henan)

·         Yaowangshan Stone Sculptures (Northern Wei d.-Tang d.: 200 stone tablets; 7 grottoes; statues; Yaoxian, Shaanxi)

·         Yemar (11th c.CE: Tibetan Buddh.; Gyantse, Tibet)

·         Yerpa (7th c.CE: Tib.Buddh. monastery; Lhasa, Tibet)

·         Yinxu [“Remains of Yin”] (1400 BCE: Longshan; oracle bones; ancient Shang capital; necropolis?: 185 ceremonial pits, buried 852 human and animal sacrifices, 15 horses, 10 oxen, 18 sheep, 35 dogs, 5 chariots; Anyang)

·         Yonghe Temple [“Palace of Peace and Harmony Lama Temple”](1695 CE: Qing d.Buddhist; Beijing)

·         Youguosi (Song d. Buddhist monastery- Iron Pagoda; Kaifeng, Henan)

·         Yuantongsi (8th c.CE: Buddh.temple; Kunming)

·         Yungang Grottoes [SR](460-525 CE: 252 grottoes, 51000 Buddha statues and statuettes; Datong, Shanxi)

·         Yunju Temple (616 CE: Buddhist; Fangshan, Beijing)

·         Zhenguosi (963 CE: Buddhist temple; Pingyao, Shanxi)

·         Zhengzhou (Shang d. bronze settlement; Henan)

·         Zhenjue Temple [“Temple of the Great Righteous Awakening”]/Five Pagoda Temple (Ming d. Buddhist; Beijing)

·         Zhihuasi [“Temple of Wisdom Attained”](1443 CE: Buddhist; Beijing)

·         Zhuhuasi [“Temple of Wisdom Attained”](Ming d.Buddhist; Beijing)

·         Zunshengsi/Shanzhugeyuan/Zhenrongchanyuan (Tang d.Buddhist temple; Wutai)


HONG KONG:                         

·         Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb (25-200 CE: Eastern Han)

·         Stone Circles (Neolithic):

o    Lo Ah Tsai (Lamma is.)

o    Fau Lau (Lantau is.)

·         Wong Tei Tung (Palaeolithic; Sham Chung)



·         Armazi (100 BCE; Mtskheta)

·         Bagrati Cathedral/Gelati Monastery (11th c.CE; d.1692 in explosion by Ottoman troops; Kutaisi, Imereti)

·         Dmanisi (600 CE; Kvemo Kartli)

·         Jvari monastery (4th c.CE: Saint Nino wooden cross over pagan temple; 586-605 CE: Great Church of Jvari; Mtskheta)

·         Kutaisi (2nd m.BCE: capital of k.Colchis; Rioni r.)

·         Mtskheta (1000 BCE: capital of k.Iberia: Armaztsikhe acropolis; 1st c.BCE: Roman: Pompey’s bridge; confluence of Aragvi and Kura r.)

·         Nokalakevi (1000 BCE; Senaki)

·         Samtavro Monastery (4th c.CE: Nunnery of Saint Nino; 11th c.CE: reconstructed; Mtskheta)

·         Sioni Cathedral of the Dormition (5th c.CE: initial church; 575-639 CE: new structure; 1112 CE: rebuilt; 1226 CE: Mongol destruction; 13th c.CE: current; 1386 CE: damaged and repaired; 17th c.CE: damaged by Persians; Mtkvari r.; Tbilisi)

·         Svetitskhoveli/Living Pillar Cathedral/Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles (1st c.CE: Elias brought Jesus’s robe here?; 4th c.CE: original church of Saint Nino; location chosen at confluence of Mtkvari and Aragvi r.; damaged by Arabs, Persians, earthquakes; 5th c.CE: tomb of King Vakhtang I Gorgasali; 1010-29 CE: Georgian Cross-Dome; Mtskheta)

·         Tsalenjikha Cathedral (12-14th c.CE; Byzantine Palaeologan; Tsalenjikha, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti)

·         Vani (800 BCE: gold objects)


INDIA: [Hindu temple (mandir); cave (bilam); Buddhist temple/shrine (stupa)/monastery (vihara; gompa)]

·         Aasfi Masjid (1784 CE: Shia Islamic; Lucknow)

·         Adichanallur (1800 BCE: 160 clay urns containing human skeletons; Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu)

·         Adi Kumbeswarar Temple (700 CE: Shiva-Hindu; festival: Mahamaham; Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Aghoreshwara Temple (Hoysala-Kadamba Shiva-Hindu; Ikkeri; Shimoga; Karnataka)

·         Ahobilam (Hindu: 108 Vaishnava Divyadesams; 9 temples Nallamala forest; Narasimha Swamyin Cave; Accd. to the Puranic legend, this is where Narasimha blessed Prahlada to kill demon Hiranyakashipa; Kurnool; Nandyal; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Aihole (450 CE: Hindu; temples: Lad Khan- Shiva, Huchappayya, Huchimalli, Galaganatha, Durga; Chalukya style; Bagalkot; Karnataka)

·         Airavatesvara Temple (12th c.CE: Dravidian-Chola Shiva-Hindu; Darasuram, Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Ajanta Caves (200 BCE; Ajintha, Aurangabad)

·         Alampur

·         Alathiyur Hanuman Temple (1000 BCE: Hanuman Hindu; Alathiyur; near Tirur; Malappuram; Kerala)

·         Alchi Monastery (1000 c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Amararama (Shiva-Hindu; Pancharama Kshetra; Shivalinga; Krishna r.; Guntur; Andra Pradesh)

·         Amaravati/Dhanyakataka (500 BCE: Buddh. stupa; Buddha preaches kalachakra; Guntur, Andra Pradesh)

·         Amarnath Temple (5000+ BP: Shiva-Hindu: cave temple of Amarnath-Shiva; stalagmite-linga; 1990s-2000 massacres; heavily secured w/military; Srinagar; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple (790 CE: Hindu; Kerala)

·         Ambika Mata Temple (961 CE: Durga-Hindu; inscription; Udaipur, Rajastan)

·         Ammachiveedu Muhurthi (1400 CE: Krishna Hindu; Ambalappuzha; Kerala)

·         Ammathiruvadi Temple (1000 CE: 108 Durga Hindu; Thrissur; Kerala)

·         Ambaji (Ambaji Mata-Shakti-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peetha; Abu m.; Banaskantha; Gujarat)

·         Amrutesvara Temple (1196 CE: Hoysala Hindu; vimana, mandapa, kirthimukhas-demon faces; Ramayana sculptures, Mahabharata, Kanada poems by Janna; Chikmaglur; Karnataka)

·         Anajaneya Temple Gotluru (400 BP: Hindu; Gotluru; Andra Pradesh)

·         Ananta Vasudeva Temple (13th c.CE: Vaishnava-Hindu; Bhubaneswar, Orissa)

·         Ananthanatha Basadi (1250 c.CE: Chalukya Jain; Lakshmeshwara; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Annamalaiyar Temple (10 BCE: Kovil Annamalaiyar/Shiva-Unnamalaiyaal/Parvati-Hindu; Annamalai hill; Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Annamanada Mahadeva Temple (800 CE: Shaivite Hindu; Annamanada; Thrissur; Kerala)

·         Annapoorneshwari [“feeding one and all”] Temple (400 BP: Hindu; Horanadu; Chikmaglur; Karnataka)

·         Annigeri (1050 CE: Chalukya Hindu; Temples: Amruteshwara- 76 pillars, Banashankari, Gajina Basappa, Hire Hanuman, Puradhireshwar; Annigeri; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Antara Gange [“Ganges from deep”][SM] (Shathashrunga m.; Kolar; Karnataka)

·         Arambol Caves (Buddh.; Goa)

·         Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple (1000 CE: Krishna Hindu; Mahabharata; Aranmula; Kerala)

·         Arasavalli (7th c.CE: Surya-Narayana Swami-Hindu; Srikakulam; Andra Pradesh)

·         Arattupuzha Sree Sashta (2000 BCE: Rama Hindu; Thrissur; Kerala)

·         Ardhagiri Sri Veeranjaneya Swamy Temple (12th c.CE: Hanuman-Hindu; Aragonda; Andra Pradesh)

·         Ashtabujakaram (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesam; legend: Sarabeswaran; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Avantipur

·         Avudayar Koil (2nd c.CE: Chola Shiva-Hindu; origin of sacred book of Saivism, Thiruvasakam; Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Aurangabad Caves (6-7th c.CE: 12 artificial rock-cut Buddhist shrines; Maharashta)

·         Babri Mosque (1528 CE; d.1992 CE: Islamic; built over large Hindu complex; Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Badami Caves (600 CE: Karnataka)

·         Badoli

·         Badrinath Temple/Sapta Badri (Jain: 1st Trithankar- Adinath/Rishabdev = Lord Badrinath; 9th c.CE: f.Shankara; Himalayan-north branch for Advaita Vedanta; Badrinarayan-Vishnu-Hindu: Alaknanda r.; Badrinath; 4-Chota/Char Dham; Uttarakhand)

·         Baijnath Temple (1000+ BP: Shiva-Hindu; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Bakthavatsala Perumal Temple (6th c.CE: Pallavas Bakthavatsala/Vishnu-Hindu; Thirunindravur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Baleshwar Temple (10-12th c.CE; 16th c.CE: Chand d. Baleshwar/Shiva-Hindu; location of Vishnu turtle incarnation, Kurmavtar; Champawat, Uttarakhand)

·         Balligavi (birth place of Virashaiva saint Allama Prabhu; 685 CE: Satavahana-Kadamba, Chaturmukha linga-4 faced linga; 7-8th c.CE: Chalukya-Hoysala Hindu: Kedaresvara temple: trikuta vimana; mandapa, Brahma linga, Vishnu statue; legend: capital of Asura king Bali- Balipura [“city of Bali”]; Shikaripura; Shimoga; Karnataka)

·         Bambleshwari Temple (2200 BP: Shiva-Parvati-Hindu; legend of Raja Veersen puja; Dongargarh; Rajnandgaon; Chhattisgarh)

·         Banashankari Temple (7th c.CE/18th c.CE: Banashankari-Parvati-Hindu; near Badami; Cholachagudd; Bagalkot; Karnataka)

·         Banashankari Temple (13th c.CE: Chalukya Hindu; Amargol; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Bandora Caves (Buddh.; Goa)

·         Banke Bihari Temple (16th c.CE; moved 1864: Krishna-Hindu; Vrindavan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Barabar Caves (3rd c.BCE: Buddh.; oldest surviviing rock cut caves of India; Nagarjuni caves; Jehanabad, Bihar)

·         Bardan Monastery/Gompa (17th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Padum; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Basgo Monastery/Gompa (1680 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Basco; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Basistha Temple (2nd-1st m.BCE: Shiva-Hindu; Brahmaputra r.; Guwahati; Assam)

·         Becharaji Temple (Shakti-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peetha- hands; Bahucharaji; Mehsana; Gujarat)

·         Bedse Caves (1st c.BCE: Buddhist vihara; Pune; Maharashtra)

·         Beechupally (Hanuman-Anjaneya Swamy-Hindu; Krishna r.; Mahaboob Nagar; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Belur

·         Bhadrachalam Temple (1674 CE: Rama-Hindu; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Bhadrakali Temple (1163 CE: Grand Mother Goddess-Hindu; Bhadrakali l.; 8 major, 12 minor temples; Warangal; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Bhairabi Temple (9th c.CE: Durga-Hindu; Brahmaputra r.; Tezpur; Assam)

·         Bhavani Temple (12th c.CE: Parvati-Hindu; 52 Shakti Pithas; Tuljapur, Maharashta)

·         Bhaja Caves (200 BCE: Buddh. vihara; Karli, near Lonavala; Maharashtra)

·         Bharhut (3rd c.BCE: Maurya-Buddhist stupa; Satna, Madhya Pradesh)

·         Bhima Devi Temple Complex (8-12th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; 13th-15th c.CE: destruction by Muslim and Mongol invasions; Pinjore; Panchkula; Haryana)

·         Bhimakali Temple (Hindu: 52 Shakti Peethas- ear of Sati; Sarahan; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Bhirrana (Harappan; Fatehabad)

·         Bhitargaon (6th c.CE: Gupta Hindu; Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Bhoramdeo Temple (7-11th c.CE: Hindu; Kawardha; Chharrisgarh)

·         Bhramaramba Mallikarjuna Temple (Shiva-Hindu; one of 12 Jyotirlinga; Srisailam; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Bhubaneshwar (2nd c.BCE: Chedi Kalinga temple city; Orissa)

·         Bhuleshwar (13th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Kailash; Mahashivatri; Maharashtra)

·         Bhumara

·         Bhutanatha group (7th-11th c.CE: Bhutanatha-Hindu; Kalyani Chalukya style; Shivalinga, Makara, Yamuna riding a tortoise, Vishnu, Nandi; Badami; Karnataka)

·         Bhuteshwar Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Jind; Haryana)

·         Bhutia Busty Gompa (1879 CE: Buddh.; Darjeeling)

·         Bijjat Maharaj Temple Sarain (7th c.CE: Bijjat Maharaj-Hindu; Sarain; Shimla; Himachal)

·         Bijli Mahadev (Shiva-Hindu; shivalinga; lightning temple; Kullu valley; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Biraja Temple (13th c.CE: Shiva-Durga-Hindu; Jajpur, Orissa)

·         Bishnupur

·         Boiyakonda Gangamma Temple (Hindu; pilgrimage; Chittoor; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Brahma Temple, Pushkar (14th c.CE: Brahma-Hindu; Pushkar, Rajastan)

·         Brahmeswara Temple (9th c.CE: Hindu; Bhubaneswar, Orissa)

·         Brihadeeswarar Temple (11th c.CE: Chola Brihadeeswarar/Shiva-Hindu; Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Chamba

·         Chamunda Mata Temple (Chamunda-Shakti-Hindu; Chotila; Gujarat)

·         Chamundeshwari Temple (12th c.CE: Hoysala Chamundeshwari/Durga-Hindu; Chamundi hills; Mysore, Karnataka)

·         Chandi Devi Temple (8th c.CE: Chandidevi/Shakti-Hindu; Panch Tirth; Siddh Peetha; Haridwar, Uttarakhand)

·         Chandi Mandir (Chandi-Hindu; Navratras festivals; Shivalik hills; Chandigarh; Haryana)

·         Chandramouleshwara Temple (900 BP: Chalukya Hindu; Unkal Hubli-Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Charbhuja (1444 CE: Vishnu-Hindu; Kumbhalgarh, Rajsamand, Rajasthan)

·         Charminar [“Mosque of the Four Minarets”](1591 CE: Islamic; Hyderbad, Andhra Pradesh)

·         Chaturbhuja Temple (875 CE: Gurjara Pratihara d.; Vishnu-Hindu; Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh)

·         Chaudayyadanapura Mukteshwara temple (11-12th c.CE: Kalyani Chalukya Hindu; 7 Kannada inscriptions; Haveri; Karnataka)

·         Chausath Jogini Temple [“64 Joginis Temple”](9th c.CE: Bramh d.Hindu; near Bhubaneshwar, Orissa)

·         Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple (1098 CE: Cheluvanarayana/Tiruanarayana-Hindu; Melkote; Mandya; Karnataka)

·         Chemrey Gompa (1664 CE: Tib.Buddh.; 40kmE Leh; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Chennakeshava temple (1117 CE: Hoysala Hindu; Belur; Hassan; Karnataka)

·         Chennakeshava Temple (1268 CE: Hoysala Vishnu-Hindu; trikurta vimana; legends: Mahabharata, Ramayana; yalis, makara, hansas; Somanathapura; Mandya; Karnataka)

·         Cheraman Juma Masjid (629 CE: Islamic; 2nd oldest mosque in the world; Kodungallur, Kerala)

·         Chettikulangara Devi Temple (800 CE: Sree Devi Hindu; Mavelikkara; Kerala)

·         Chidambaram Natarajar Temple (400 CE: Pallava-Chola Shiva-Nataraj-Hindu; 5 Pancha Bootha Sthalams- Aether; Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu)

·         Chilkur Balaji Temple (1500s CE: Lord Venkateswara-Visa Balaji-Hindu; Osman Sagar l.; Gandipet; Hyderbad; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Chintaman Ganesh (Hindu; Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh)

·         Chirakkadavu Sree Mahadevar Temple (1000 CE: Shaivite Hindu; Kottayam; Kerala)

·         Chitorgarh

·         Chudamani Vihara (1006 CE: Buddh. vihara-monastery; 3rd c.BCE: Nagapattinam; Tamil Nadu)

·         Dadhimati Mata Temple (4th c.CE: Gupta Laxmi-Dadhimati-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peethas; Nagaur, Rajasthan)

·         Daksheswara Mahadev Temple (1810 CE: Shiva-Hindu; legend of Daksha; Kankhal, Haridwawr, Uttarakhand)

·         Danteshwari Temple (14th c.CE: Danteshwari-Shakti-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peetha-tooth of Sati fell here; Dantewada; Bastar; Chhattisgarh)

·         Da Parbatia (4th c.CE: Hindu; Tezpur; Assam)

·         Darasuram

·         Deogarh

·         Deur Kothar (3rd c.BCE: Maurya king Asoka; Buddhist stupas; Rewa; Madhya Pradesh)

·         Devi Jagadambi/Jagadambika Temple (10-12th c.CE: Chandella d. Hindu; -25 temples @Khajuraho; Madhya Pradesh)

·         Devi Temple, Kadampuzha (Sree Devi Hindu; Mahabharata; Malappuram; Kerala)

·         Dhanop Sheetla Mata Temple (900 CE: Shiva-Parvati-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peeth; Bhilwara, Rajastan)

·         Dharmaraya Swamy Temple (12th c.CE: masonry; 16th c.CE: Hindu; Bangalore, Karnataka)

·         Dharmasthala (968 CE: Shiva-Hindu-Jain; gold linga; legend of Annappa; Anna Daana [“free food”]- 10000 pilgrims/day; Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Dharmrajeshwar (4-5th c.CE: Buddhist-Hindu cave temple; Mandsaur; Madhya Pradesh)

·         Dhankar Gompa (12th c.CE: Buddh.temple and monastery; ancient capital of Spiti; Lahul; Himal Pradesh)

·         Dholavira (2900 BCE; Harappan civilization; Gujarat)

·         Dilwara (11-13th c.CE: Jain temple complex: Vimal Vasahi, Luna Vasahi, Pittalhar, Parshvanatha, Mahavir Swami; Sirohi, Rajastan; Mt. Abu)

·         Diskit Gompa (14th c.CE: f.Tsong Khapa; Gelugpa-Yellow Hat Tib.Buddh.; Dosmoche “Festival of the Scapegoat;” Nubra v.; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Doddabasappa Temple (12th c.CE: Chalukya Hindu: 24 pointed vimana; Gadag; Dambal; Karnataka)

·         Dodda Ganeshana Gudi/Bull Temple (Nandi-Hindu; Basavanagudi; Bangalore; Karnataka)

·         Draksharama (800 CE: Shiva-Surya-Hindu; Shiva-linga; Godavari r.; Kakinada; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Dubdi Gompa (1701 CE: Nyingma Tib.Buddh.; Yuksom; Sikkim)

·         Durga Mandir (1500 CE: Durga-Hindu; Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Durga Parameshwari Temple (8th c.CE: Durga-Hindu; Mundkur; Udupi; Karnataka)

·         Durgiana Temple (Durga-Hindu; Amritsar, Punjab)

·         Dwaraka [MA] [GP12] (32000-9000 BP: submerged <70’> sandstone walls, cobblestone streets sea port evidence; Hindu texts- dwelling place of Lord Krishna; King Shalva <from sky; gods = extra-terrestrials?> attacked <with energy weapons?> Krishna on Earth <who responded with thunder arrows>; Krishna eventually departed Earth, and ocean consumed Dwaraka; Sangam <assembly of sages; included extra-terrestrials> literature: 1st two sangams took place at Kumari Kandam <naga kingdom that “sank beneath the waves”>; near Gulf of Khambhat submerged <170’> complex- 2001: Oceanic Institute researchers detect anomolies 7 miles from shore; commisioned to survey pollution, the site scan sonar detected regular structures- network of stone buildings, shrouded in mud and sand, covering 5 sq.mi.; remains of 2 cities situated on ancient rivers; 32000 BP: dozens of wood and pottery artifacts; 9000 BP: covered by ocean; Gulf of Khambhat; Gujarat)

·         Dwarakadheesh Temple (400 BCE; 8th c.CE: f.Shankara; western branch for Advaita Vedanta; 16th c.CE: Krishna-Hindu; 4 Char Dham; Mahabarata mention; near Dwaraka- submerged complex; Gujarat)

·         Dzongkhul Monastery (10th c.CE: f.Naropa; Kagyu Tib.Buddh.; Zanskar; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Ekambareswarar Temple (600 CE: Ekambareswarar-Shiva-Hindu; 5 Pancha Bootha Sthalams- Earth; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Eklingji (8th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Udaipur, Rajasthan)

·         Elephanta Caves (5-8th c.CE: Chalukyan-Hindu; Mahabharata; Pandava; Banasura; Mumbai, Maharashtra)

·         Ellora Caves (500 CE: Hindu-Buddh.-Jain; Aurangabad, Maharashtra)

·         Enchey Gompa (200 BP: Tib.Buddh.; Gangtok; Sikkim)

·         Eravikulangara Temple (400 CE: Shaivite Hindu; Ernakulam; Kerala)

·         Eri Katha Ramar (5th c.CE: Pallavas Rama-Hindu; Thirunindravur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Ettumanoor Mahadevar Temple (1542 CE: Shiva Hindu; Kottayam; Kerala)

·         Evoor (Sree Krishna Hindu; Alappuzha; Kerala)

·         Ezhumanthuruthu Poonkavil Devi Temple (17th c.CE: Devi Hindu; Kottayam; Kerala)

·         Gadag (1050-1200 CE: Chalukya Hindu: temples: Trikuteshwara complex- Shiva-Brahma-Surya, Veeranarayana- where Kumara Vyasa composed Mahabharatha; Gadag; Dambal; Karnataka)

·         Galageshwara Temple (11th c.CE: Kalyani Chalukya Hindu; shivalinga; Kannada inscription; Ganesha; Galaganatha; Haveri; Karnataka)

·         Galtaji (18th c.CE: Surya-Balaji-Hindu; Jaipur, Rajasthan)

·         Gandhola Monastery (8th c.CE: f.Padmasambhava; Tib.Buddh.; sacred junction of Chandra and Bhaga r. to form the Chenab r.; Lahaul, Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Gangaikondacholapuram

·         Gavi Gangadhareshwara/Gavipuram Cave Temple (9th c.CE: Shiva-Agni-Hindu; astronomical arch.: Makar Sankranti Day-light shines on cave shivalinga for 1 hr.btwn. Nandi horns; solstice temple at an earlier time; Bangalore; Karnataka)

·         Gaya (600 BCE: Magadha k.; Hindu/Buddh.: ancient city; Gayasisa/Brahmayoni hill- where Gautama Buddha taught Fire Sutta; Vishnupadh Temple; Bodhgaya; Bihar)

·         Gemur Monastery (11th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Kullu; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Ghorawadi/Ghorawdeshwar caves (3rd-4th c.CE: 9 Buddh. meditation rooms carved out of a single rock; Pune, Maharashtra)

·         Ghum Gompa (1875 CE: Buddh.; Darjeeling)

·         Gnana Saraswati Temple (Saraswati-Hindu; Godavari r.; Basar; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Godachi (Vijayanagar: Hindu; Ramdurg; Belgaum; Karnataka)

·         Gokarnanatheshwara Temple (1908 CE: Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Gomateshwara [MA](1000 CE; Shravanabelagola, Karnataka)

·         Gongotri Temple (18th c.CE: Ganga-Hindu; 4-Chota Char Dham; near source of Ganges r.- Bhagirathi r.; Rishikesh; Uttarakhand)

·         Gop

·         Gopinath Mandir (12th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Gopeshwar, Chamoli, Uttarakhand)

·         Gorakhnath Math (11th c.CE: Yogi Gorakshanath-Hindu shrine; Gorakhpur, Uttar Oradesh)

·         Gozzangwa Monastery (10th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Khardong; Lahul, Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Grishneshwar (1000 CE: r.16th c.CE: 12 Jyotilinga; Shiva-Hindu; Aurangabad, Maharashtra)

·         Gwalior

·         Guptakashi (Shiva-Hindu; legend: Pandavas, Mahabharata; Garhwal, Uttarakhand)

·         Guru Ghantal Monastery (11th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Tupchiling; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Guruvayur Temple (1000 CE: Krishna Hindu; 4000 BCE: deity; Thrissur; Kerala)

·         Halasi (980 CE: 2nd Kadamba capital; Vaishnavism-Shaivism-Hindu-Jain; temples: Bhuvaraha Narasimha, Suvameshwara, Kapileshwar, Hatekeshwara, Kalmeshwara, Gokameshwara; 11th c.CE: Jain temple; Belgaum; Karnataka)

·         Halasuru Someshwara Temple (12-13th c.CE: Someshwara-Shiva-Hindu; 16th c.CE: Hoysala-Chola-Vijayanagara styles added; Halasuru; Bangalore; Karnataka)

·         Halebid

·         Hampi (Mahabharata legend: Kishkindha and Vanara-monkey kingdoms; 1 CE; 1336-1565 CE: Vijayanagara ruins; naga temples: Virupaksha; elephant stables; stone chariot at Vittala complex, Stepped Tank near Underground Temple, Bukka Aqueduct near Anegondi; Anjeyanadri hill; Bellary; Karnataka)

·         Hangal Tarakeshwara (12th c.CE: Kalyani Chalukya Shiva-Hindu-Jain; dome; shivalinga; Veerabhadra temple; Billeshwara temple; Hangal; Haveri; Karnataka)

·         Hanle Gompa (17th c.CE: Drugpa-Kagyu “Red Hat” Tib.Buddh.; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Hanuman Temple (1724 CE: Bala-Hanuman-Hindu; 5-Mahabharata Delhi; Connaught Place, New Delhi)

·         Hariharashwara Temple (1223-4 CE: Hoysala Vishnu-Shiva-Hindu; mantapa, vimana, Kannada inscriptions, hero stones; legend: Guhasura vs. Harihara; Harihar; Davanagere; Karnataka)

·         Hari Parbat (1590 CE: Muslim fort; Sharika Temple; Makhdoom Sahib; accd.to legend, this hill was once a large lake inhabited by the demon Jalobhava, then Parvati dropped a pebble, becoming the hill, to crush the demon; Srinagar; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Hatimura Temple (1667 CE: Durga-Hindu; human sacrifice; Brahmaputra r.; Silghat; Nagaon; Assam)

·         Hemis Gopma (1672 CE: f.Sengge Namgyal; Drukpa Tib.Buddh.; Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Hidimba Devi Temple (1553 CE: Hidimbi Devi-Hindu; Mahabharata; cave temple; Manali; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Hooli Panchalingeshwara temple (Hindu; temples: Andhakeshwara, Bhavnisankhara, Kalmeshwara, Kashi Vishwanatha, Madaneshwara, Suryanarayana, Tarkeshwara, Beerdevar; Belgaum; Karnataka)

·         Hoysaleswara Temple (1121 CE: Hoysala Shiva-Hindu; sculptures: Shiva-Parvati, dancing Ganesha, Garuda pillar; Halebidu; Hassan; Karnataka)

·         Hridayaleeswarar Temple (6th c.CE: Hridayaleeswarar/Shiva-Hindu; Thirunindravur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Hulimavu Cave Temple (15th c.CE: Hindu; shivalinga; Bangalore; Karnataka)

·         Hundur Gompa (Tib.Buddh.; Nubra v.; Ladakh; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Idagunji Devasthana (1500 BP: Vaisnava-Krishna-Hindu; Lord Ganesha temple; Manki; Uttara Kannada; Karnataka)

·         Ishvara Temple (1220 CE: Hoysala Shiva-Hindu; hero stone; Kannada inscription; Arasikere; Hassan; Karnataka)

·         Itagi Bhimambika temple (1000 CE: Chalukya Shiva-Hindu; Gadag; Gajendragad; Karnataka)

·         Jagannath [“Lord of the Universe”] Temple (11th c.CE: Jaganath-Krishna-Vishnu-Hindu; 4 Char Dham; Rath Yatra festival; Puri; Orissa)

·         Jagannath Temple (1691 CE: Vishnu-Hindu; 1990: collapsed; 1992: restored; Ranchi; Jharkhand)

·         Jagannatha Gattu Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Shivalinga; Kurnool; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Jagdish Temple (1651 CE: Aryan-Hindu; Udaipur, Rajasthan)

·         Jageshwar (9-13th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; temple city of 124 stone temples; Jageshwar, Almora, Uttarakhand)

·         Jag Mandir/Lake Garden Palace (1515-1652 CE: water palace; Lake Pichola; Udaipur, Rajasthan)

·         Jakhoo (Hanuman-Hindu; Ramayana; Shimla; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Jama Masjid (1617-56 CE: Islamic; Delhi)

·         Jama Masjid (1400 CE: Islamic; Jaunpur)


·         Janardanaswamy Temple (2000 BP: Vishnu-Hindu; Varkala; Thiruvananthapuram; Kerala)

·         Jarai-ka-Math (860 CE: Pratiharas Durga-Hindu; Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Jayanti Devi Temple (Jayanti Devi-Hindu; Jind; Haryana)

·         Jaugada fort (300 BCE; Bhubaneshwar)

·         Jogeshwari Caves (520-550 CE: Buddh. cave temple; Maharashtra)

·         Jyotisar [“core meaning of light”] (banyan-vat where Krishna preached Bhagavad Gita; Kurukshetra/Dharmakshetra; Haryana)

·         Kadalayi (5000 BP: Vishnu-Hindu; Chirakkal; Kannurl; Kerala)

·         Kadri Manjunath Temple (968 CE: Lokeshwara-Shiva-Hindu; bronze statue; Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Kailasnatha Temple (8th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Kailasanathar Temple (8th c.CE: Kailasanathar-Shiva-Hindu; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Kailash/Kailasanatha Temple (8th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; rock cut temple; linga; Ellora caves; Maharashtra)

·         Kalahasti Nathar (5 Pancha Bootha Sthalams- Wind;)

·         Kalakaleshwara temple (Shiva-Hindu; Gajendragad; Gadag; Karnataka)

·         Kalasa (Shiva Hindu; legend: Skanda Purana- myth of Sage Agasthya and marriage of Shiva-Parvati; Bhadra r.; Chikmaglur; Karnataka)

·         Kalghatgi (Hindu-Jain; Temples: Mahalakshmi, Shantinatha Basadi Jain, Tamboor Basavanna; Kalghatgi; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Kalighat Kali Temple (Kali-Hindu; 52-Shakti Peethas; Hooghly r., Adi Ganga r.; Calcutta, West Bengal)

·         Kalika/Maha Kali Temple (300 BP: Kali-Hindu; legend: Kalika Mata came into dream of Pandit Jagat Ram Sharma revealing Pindi stone within hill; Reasi; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Kalika Mata Temple (Bhadrakali-Kali-Hindu; Chittorgarh, Rajasthan)

·         Kalikambal Temple (relocated 1640 CE: Kalikambal-Hindu; Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Kalka Mandir (3000 BP; 3rd c.BCE: Ashoka Kali-Hindu; 5-Mahabharata Delhi; New Delhi)

·         Kalpeshwar (Shiva-Hindu; 5-Panch Kedar; legend: Pandava, Mahabharata; Garhwal, Uttarakhand)

·         Kamakhya Temple (1565 CE: Kamakhya-Hindu; human sacrifice; Nilachal hill; Guwahati; Assam)

·         Kamakshi Amman Temple (6 CE: Pallava kings; Kamakshi-Parvati-Hindu; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Kamala Narayana Temple (12th c.CE: Hindu; Kadamba style: Degaon; Kittur; Belgaum, Karnataka)

·         Kambagiri Swami (Vishnu-Hindu; Kurnool; Racherla; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kanaka Durga Temple (Durga-Hindu; Krishna r.; Vijayawada; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kanakagiri (Mauryan capital; Gangavati; Koppal; Karnataka)

·         Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (1000 BCE?; 1050 c.CE: Chandela Mahadeva-Shiva-Hindu; largest temple @Khajuraho; Madhya Pradesh)

·         Kangra

·         Kanheri Caves [SR](3rd c.BCE: Maurya Empire; Mumbai)

·         Kanipakam Vinayaka/Sri Varasidi Vinayaka Swamy Temple (11th c.CE: Chola Ganesha-Hindu; Kanipakam; Chittoor; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kapaleeshwarar Temple (7 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Mylapore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Kapila Theertham (11th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Kapila Maharishi cave; near Tirupati-Tirumala; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kapilash Temple (1246 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Dhenkanal, Orissa)

·         Kappil Bhagavathy Temple (1000 BP: Shaivite-Hindu; Kappil; Kerala)

·         Kardang Monastery (12th c.CE: Drukpa Tib.Buddh.; Lahul, Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Karkala Sri Venkataramana Temple (14th c.CE: Venkateshwara-Hindu; Karkala; Karnataka)

·         Karla Caves (2nd c.BCE-2nd c.CE: Buddhist rock-cut vihara-stupa; Karli; Maharashtra)

·         Karmanghat Hanuman Temple (11th c.CE: Hanuman-Hindu; Karmanghat; Hyderbad; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Karni Mata (15th c.CE: Durga-Hindu; Deshnoke, Rajasthan)

·         Karpaka Vinayakar Temple/Pillaiyarpatti (4th c.CE: Karpaka Vinayakar-Ganesha-Hindu; rock-cut cave shrine; Madurai, Thiruppatthur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Karppillikkavu Sree Mahadeva Temple (2000 BCE?: 108 siva kshethras; Shaivite-Hindu; Ernakulam; Kerala)

·         Kartikeya Temple (5th c.BCE: Kartikeya/Kumara/Skanda-Hindu; Skanda Purana; Peshawar; Kurukshetra; Haryana)

·         Kashi Vishwanath Temple/Golden Temple (11th c.CE; r.1780 CE: Vishwanath/Shiva-Hindu; Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Kasivisvesvara Temple Gadag (1087 CE: Chalukya Hindu; Kannada inscriptions; Gadag; Lakkundi; Karnataka)

·         Kaviyoor Mahadevar Temple (10th c.CE: Shiva-Vishnu Hindu; Kaviyoor; Kerala)

·         Kayavarohan [“body descent”] Temple (2nd c.CE: Lakulisha-Shiva-Hindu; Shivalingas; accd. Shiva Purana: 68 pilgrimage-tirtha of Shiva; Shivratri festival; Vadodara; Gujarat)

·         Kedareswar Temple (Hanuman-Shiva-Hindu; 8 Astasambhu; near Ramachandi; Dhenkanal, Orissa)

·         Kedarnath Mandir (Kedarnath-Shiva-Hindu; 4-Chota Char Dham; 5-Panch Kedar; accd.to Puranas, where Pandava brothers performed penance to Shiva; lingum; Garhwal Himalayan range; Mandakini r.; Kedarnath; Uttarakhand)

·         Kesaria (where Gautama Buddha preached Kesaputtiya Suttas; 200 CE: stupa; Bihar)

·         Keshava temple (1268 CE: Hoysala Hindu; Somnathpur; Mysore; Karnataka)

·         Kesava Deo Temple (2500 BCE?; 400 CE; d.1017 CE; r.1150 CE: Krishna-Hindu; Mathura, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Ketakeshwar Dewal (Hindu; one of the largest shivalinga; Tezpur; Assam)

·         Key Monastery (11th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Khajuraho [MA](950 BCE; Madhya Pradesh)

·         Kharligarh ancient fort (300 BCE; Bhuampada)

·         Kheer Bhawani (Bhawani-Maharagya Devi-Hindu; linga; legend: Hanuman retrieved linga from Sri Lanka-Ravana and brought here; Tula Mula; Srinigar; Kashmir)

·         Khrew (Jawala Bhagvati-Hindu; Pulwama; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Kiradu

·         Kodandarama Temple (14th c.CE: Kodandarama/Rama-Hindu; Hiremagalur, Karnataka)

·         Konark/Konarak Sun Temple [MA](1250 CE; Orissa)

·         Kondagattu (300 BP?: Anjaneya Swamy-Hanuman-Hindu; Karimnagar; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Koodakmanikyam Temple (854 CE: Ramayana-Hindu; Irinjalakuda; Trissur; Kerla)

·         Koodal Azhagar Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 devyadesams; Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Kopineshwar Mandir (810-1240 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Nandi; linga; Thane, Maharashtra)

·         Korzok Gompa (17th c.CE: Drukpa Tib.Buddh.; Leh; Ladakh; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Kosambi (5th c.BCE: Muaryan city; Gautama Buddha holy site; Uttar Pradesh)

·         Kottarakkara Sree Mahaganapathi Kshethram (Ganapati-Siva-Hindu; Kottarakkara; Kerala)

·         Koti Lingala (Shiva-Hindu; lingas; Godavari r.; Karimnagar; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kotilingam (15th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; 12 rows x 85 lingams; Panchadharala; Visakhapatnam; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Koulutla Chenna Kesava Temple (11th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Kurnool; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Krauncha Giri (15th c.CE: Chalukya Hindu; 1st abode of Subramanya/Murugan; Kumaraswami temple; legends: Mahabharata, Skanda Purana, Agastya, Parasuram; Bellary; Karnataka)

·         Kshreerarama (Shiva-Hindu; Shivalinga-Vishnu; Pancharama Kshetras; Palakollu; W.Godavari; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kudalasangama (12th c.CE: Lingayat-Hindu; temples: Sangamanatha, Aikya linga of Basaveshwara, Sabha Bhavana; Chalukya style; Bagalkot; Karnataka)

·         Kudargarh (17th c.CE: Maa-Hindu; Surguja; Chhattisgarh)

·         Kudroli Bhagavathi (800 BP: Hindu; festivals: Nadavali, Bharani; Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Kukke Subramanya Temple (968 CE: Subramanya-Hindu; Garuda pillar; idols: Shesha, Vasuki; Sarpa Samskara/Sarpa Dosha; Kumaradhara r.; Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Kuknur (8-13th c.CE: Chalukya Shiva-Hindu: Navalinga temple; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Kumararama (892-922 CE: Kumara-Murugan-Shiva-Hindu; Shivalinga; Pancharama Kshetras; Samarlakota; E.Godavari; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Kumara Swami Devasthana (Kumara Swami/Subrahmanya/Parabrahman-Hindu; Bangalore; Karnataka)

·         Kungri Monastery (1330 CE: Nyingma Tib.Buddh.; Lahul, Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Kursha Gompa (1000 c.CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.; Doda r.; Zanskar; Ladakh; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Kurudumale temple (Chola Hindu; Kolar; Karnataka)

·         Kushinagar (ancient city where Siddartha Gautama Buddha died; 3rd c.BCE-5th c.CE: ruined Buddh.stupas and viharas; Uttar Pradesh)

·         Kuttankulangara Sri Krishna Temple (300 BP: Hindu; Thrissur; Kerala)

·         Kuttumuck Siva Temple (300 BP: Hindu; Kerala)

·         Lakkundi (10th c.CE: Kalyani-Chalukya Shiva-Hindu: 50 temples: Kasivisvesvara, Halagunda Basavanna, Laxminarayana, Mallikarjuna, Nadayadeva, Nagaradeva, Neelakanteshwara, Suryanarayana, Someshwara, Virabhadara, Vishwantha, Virupaksha; 11th c.CE: Jain temples: Brahma Jinalaya Basadi, Kaishivishanatha, Nanneshwara, Stepped wells; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Lakshmi Devi Temple (1114 CE: Hoysala Shiva-Hindu; Doddagaddavalli; Hassan; Karnataka)

·         Lakshmi Narasimha Temple (13th c.CE: Hoysala Vishnu-Hindu; Bhadravathi; Shimoga; Karnataka)

·         Lakshmi Narasimha Temple (1246 CE: Hoysala Shiva-Hindu; Sadashiva temple; Nuggehalli; Hassan; Karnataka)

·         Lakshminarayana Temple (1250 CE: Hoysala Vaisnava-Hindu; trikurta vimana; makara and hansa friezes; Hindu epics, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas/Myths, Mandya; Karnataka)

·         Lamayuru Gompa (11th c.CE: oldest Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Kargil; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Lankeshwar Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Guwahati; Assam)

·         Latiyal Mata Temple (1500 CE: Hindu; Phalodi; Jodhpur, Rajasthan)

·         Laxminarayan Temple/Birla Mandir (1622 CE: Laxmi-Vishnu-Hindu; Janmashtami and Diwali festivals; New Delhi)

·         Lenyadri, Shri Girijatmaj (1st c.CE: Ganesha-Girijatmaja-Hindu; cave temple; festival: Jayanti; Pune, Maharashtra)

·         Lepakshi (Shiva-Vishnu-Virabhadra-Hindu; Kurma Saila-tortoise shaped hill; Lepakshi; Anantapur; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Lhalung/Sarkhang [“Golden Temple”] Monastery (10th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.; Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Likir Gompa (1065 CE: Gelugpa Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Indus r.; Saspol; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Lingaraj Temple (11th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Bhubaneswar, Orissa)

·         Lokanarkavu Temple (1500 BP: Durga-Hindu; Memunda; Vatakara; Kerala)

·         Lothal (2400 BCE: Dholka, India)

·         Maa Taratarini Temple (Mahabharata; Hindu; 4 major 52 Shakti Peetha; Taratarini hill; Berhampur/Brahmapur, Orissa)

·         Madai Vadukunda Shiva Temple (5-8th c.CE: Kolathiri Kings; Shiva-Hindu; Madai; Kannur Taluk; Kerala)

·         Madhyamaheshwar (Shiva-Hindu; 5-Panch Kedar; legend: Pandava, Mahabharata; Mansuna, Garhwal, Uttarakhand)

·         Madurai (500 BCE: Hindu temple town)

·         Mahabaleshwar Temple (Dravidian Shiva-Hindu; festival: Shivaratri Rathyatra; Gokarna, Karnataka)

·         Mahabalipuram

·         Mahabhairav Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Tezpur; Assam)

·         Mahabodhi Temple (250 BCE: where Siddhartha Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment; Bodhgaya)

·         Mahadev Temple (1112 CE: Chalukya Shiva-Hindu; based on Amruteshwara temple at Annigeri; Itagi; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Mahadev Temple Tambdi Surla (12th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; garbhagriha, antarala, nandi mandapa, Trimurti carvings; Goa)

·         Mahadeva Temple, Kalanjoor (1100 BP: Shiva-Hindu; Kalanjoor; Kerala)

·         Maha Ganapathi Mahammaya Temple (500 BP: Ganesha-Hindu; Lord Ganesha temple; Shirali; Uttara Kannada; Karnataka)

·         Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga (12 Jyotirlinga; Shiva-Hindu; Nandi; Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh)

·         Mahakali Caves (1st c.BCE-6th c.CE: Buddh. vihara-chaitya, monastery; Mumbai)

·         Mahakuta (6th c.CE: Shaivite-Hindu; Mahakuta Pillar script; Dravidian, Vesara, Nagara temples: Mallikarjuna, Sangamesvara, Vishnu; Bagalkot; Karnataka)

·         Mahalakshmi Temple, Kolhapur (700 CE: Kannada Chalukya Lakshmi-Vishnu-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peetha; Kolhapur, Maharashtra)

·         Mahamaya Dham (Sati-Hindu: 52 Shakti Peetha; Bilasipara; Assam)

·         Mahamaya Kalika Devasthan Kansarpal (12th c.CE: Kali-Hindu; Goa)

·         Mahanandiswara Swamy Temple (1500 BP: Shiva-Hindu; fresh water pools: Kalyani, Pushkami; 9 Nandi shrines; Nallamala Hills; Kurnool; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Mahasu Devta Temple (9th c.CE: Huna Mahasudevta-Hindu; Hanol, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)

·         Mahavinayak Temple (12th c.CE: Ganesha-Hindu; 5 Kshetras; sculpture; Jajpur, Orissa)

·         Mandher Devi Temple (1600 CE: Hindu; Mandhradevi; Satara; Maharashtra)

·         Mangaladevi Temple (9th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Mangla Gauri (15th c.CE: Vaishnavite-Hindu; mentioined in Purana legends and tantric works; Gaya; Bihar)

·         Mangueshi Temple (1600 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Mangeshim; Goa)

·         Manikaran (17th c.CE: Hindu-Sikh; Ramachandra, Shiva, Rama-Krishna-Vishnu temples; legend: Manu recreated human life here after deluge; hot springs; experimental geothermal energy plant here; 1905: earthquake; Beas and Parvati r.; Kullu; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Mankiala stupa (Rawalpindi); Sialkot (2500 BCE)

·         Mansa Devi Temple (Mansa/Shakti-Hindu; Panch Tirth, 5 Pilgrimages; Siddh Peetha; festival: Navratri; Haridwar, Uttarakhand)

·         Manyamkonda (Venkateshwara-Hindu: hill shrine; Mahabubnagar)

·         Markandeshwar (3rd m.BCE: original temple, pre-Mahabaharata; Shiva-Hindu; Kurukshetra; Haryana)

·         Martand

·         Marudamalai (800 CE: Murugan-Hindu; 6-Arupadaiveedu; Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu)

·         Marundeeswarar Temple (7th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Mashro Gompa 16th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Indus r.; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Masrur

·         Mata Mansa Devi (1811-15 CE: Shakti-Hindu; Navratri festival; Panchkula; Haryana)

·         Matho Gampo (16th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Zanskar m.; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Mathura (1600 BCE?- legend: birth place of Krishna; 6th c.BCE: ancient capital; Uttar Pradesh)

·         Maya Devi Temple (11th c.CE: Mayadevi/Shakti-Hindu; Panch Tirth; Siddh Peetha; Haridwar, Uttarakhand)

·         Mecca Masjid (1617-94 CE: Islamic; Hyderbad)

·         Meenakshi Amman Temple (500 BCE: Madurai center; 1600 CE: Meenakshi-Parvati-Shiva-Hindu; Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Melukote/Thirunarayanapuram (12th c.CE: Cheluva-Narayana Swamy Temple; Sri Ramanujarya residence; Hindu; Yadavagiri rocky hills; Mandya; Karnataka)

·         Modhera

·         Mookambika (1200 BP: Shiva-Shakti-Hindu; Adi Shankara; Kollur; Karnataka)

·         Morgaon Ganesha Temple/Shri Moreshwar Mandir (17th c.CE: Ganesha-Hindu; Pune; Maharashtra)

·         Moteshwar Mahadev (Bhimashankar/Shiva-Hindu; Bheem Shankar Jyotirlingam; festival: Maha Shivratri; Kashipur, Uttarakhand)

·         Moti Masjid (1660 CE: Islamic; Delhi)

·         Mukteswar Temple (900 CE: Hindu; Bhubaneswar, Orissa)

·         Mulbekh (Drukpa-Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Zanskar; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Mundkur (700 CE: Durga-Hindu; Karkala Taluk, Udupi, Karnataka)

·         Mutathura Mahadever Temple (800 CE: Shiva-Vishnu-Hindu; Thiruvattar, Tamil Nadu)

·         Mylara Lingeshwara Temple (Shaivite-Hindu: legend: Mallasura demon quelling; Karnika Utsava prophecy utterance; Goravara Kuinita dance; Mylara; Bellary; Karnataka)

·         Nachiyar Koil (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Tirunaraiyur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Nachna

·         Nagarjunakonda (2nd c.CE: Mahayana Buddhist settlement; near Hyderbad; Andra Pradesh)

·         Nageshwar Temple (Shiva-Hindu; 12-Jyotirlinga; Dwaraka, Gujarat)

·         Naina Devi (Hindu: 52 Shakti Peeths; 2008 stampede- 123 died; Gobind Sagar l.; Bilaspur; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Nalanda (427-1197 CE: Mauryan-Gupta Buddh. University; Bihar)

·         Namgyal Monastery (1575 CE: Tibetan Buddh.assoc.w/Dalai Lamas; 1959 CE: relocated to Dharamshala; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Nanda Devi [SM] [Hindi: “Bliss Giving Goddess”](Uttarakhand)

·         Nandeeswarar Temple (Chola Shiva-Hindu; Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Nandi [“joyful”] Temple (1537 CE: Shaivite-Hindu; Vijayanagara style; Bangalore; Karnataka)

·         Narasimha temple Narasapura temple (11-12th c.CE: Kalyani Chalukya Hindu; Haveri; Karnataka)

·         Narasingam Yoga Narasimha Perumal Temple (770 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Narasingam, Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Navagraha Temples (7-12th c.CE: Chola Navagraha-Shiva-Hindu; Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Navalinga Temple (9th c.CE: Dravida Shiva-Hindu; 9 lingas; Kannada inscriptions; Koppal; Karnataka)

·         Neelkanth Mahadev Temple (Nilkanth/Shiva-Hindu; legend: where Shiva consumed poison Halahala, originating from the sea when Devas and Asuras churned the sea to obtain Amrita, Samudramanthan; Pauri Garwal, Uttarakhand)

·         Negheriting Shiva Doul (8-9th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; shivalinga; Dergaon; Golaghat; Assam)

·         Nellaiappar Temple (700 CE: Chola Nellaiappar/Shiva-Hindu; Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu)

·         Nellitheertha Cave temple (1487 CE: Somanatheshwara-Shiva-Hindu; Sage Jabali penance to Durga Parameshwari; Dakshina Kannada; Nellitheertha; Karnataka)

·         Nerul Balaji Temple (Hindu; Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra)

·         Omkareshwar (12 Jyotirlinga Hindu; Khandwa, Madhya Pradesh)

·         Osian

·         Padayanivettom Devi Temple (1200 BP: Devi-Hindu; Mavelikkara, Kerala)

·         Padmanabhaswamy Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 divya desam; Thiruvananthapuram; Kerala)

·         Palani Murugan Temple (2nd-5th c.CE: Chera Dandayudhapani Swami/Murugan-Hindu; Pandavas; Arupadaiveedu; Palani, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu)

·         Pancha Rathas [MA](7th c.CE: Hindu; Pandavas; rock-cut temple; Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Pandavleni Caves (1st c.CE-12th c.CE: Hinayana Buddh.rock-cut vihara-chaitya; Nashik; Maharashtra)

·         Pandrethan

·         Paraheda Shiv Mandir (1000 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Banswara, Rajasthan)

·         Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple (1000 CE: Bagavathi-Vishnu-Hind; Thrissur; Kerala)

·         Parsurameswar Temple (650 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Bhubaneswar, Orissa)

·         Parthasarathy Temple (8th c.CE: Vaishnavite-Hindu; 108 divyadesams; Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Pataleshwar (753 CE: Rashtrakuta Shiva-Hindu; rock-cut cave; Pune, Maharashtra)

·         Pathiyoor Devi Temple (b.Parasurama; 108 Durga Hindu; Kerala)

·         Patna/Pataligrama (450 BCE: ancient capital; Gautama Buddha holy site; Bihar)

·         Pattadakal (8th c.CE: Shaivite-Hindu-Jain; Mahakuta Pillar script; Chalukya, Dravidian, Vesara, Nagara temples: 725 CE: Sangameshvara, Kashivishvanatha, 733-45 CE: Virupaksa, 740 CE: Mallikarjuna, Papanatha, Jain Naryana; Bagalkot; Karnataka)

·         Patteswaram (Shiva-Hindu; Patteswaram, Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Pava (ancient city; Gautama Buddha holy site; Uttar Pradesh)

·         Pemayangtse Gompa (1721 CE: Nyingmapa Tib.Buddh.; Sikkim)

·         Pillars of Ashoka (300 BCE: Vaishali, Lumbini, Meerut (Delhi), Topra (Delhi), Kaushambi (Allahabad), Lauriya-Areraj, Lauriya-Nandangarh, Rampurva, Sankissa, Sanchi, Sarnath, Nigalisagar)

·         Phensang Gompa (1705 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Pelling; Sikkim)

·         Phodang Gompa (Kagyu Tib.Buddh.; Chaam Dance Festival-10th mo., 28-29th day; Gangtok; Sikkim)

·         Phugtal Gompa (12th c.CE: Drukpa Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Zanskar; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Phyang Gompa (1515 CE: Drikung Kagyu Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Poonkunnam Siva Temple (1000 BP: Hindu; Thrissur, Kerala)

·         Pulimukham Devi Temple (400 BP: Bhadra Bhagavathi-Hindu; Thazhava, Kollam, Kerala)

·         Punrasar Balaji (Hanuman-Hindu; Punrasar, Rajasthan)

·         Puri: 8th c.CE: f.Shankara; eastern branch for Advaita Vedanta;

·         Raghunath Temple (1835-60 CE: Rama-Vishnu-Hindu; 2002: suicide bombers; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Ragigudda Anjaneya Temple (Hanuman-Hindu; Shivalinga; Ganesh, Surya and Tajarajeshwari temples; Bangalore)

·         Rajarajeshwara Temple (11th c.CE: 108 Shiva-Parvati-Hindu; 64 Shakti-Peetham-head of Sati fell here; 1000s BP: linga; 18th c.CE: d.7-story Gopuram by Tipu Sultan; Taliparamba, Kannur, Kerala)

·         Rajgir (1000 BCE: Mauryan-Gautama Buddha pilgrimage site; Bihar)

·         Ramachandi Temple (Surya-Hindu; Kusabhadra r.; Puri, Orissa)

·         Rama Giri (12th c.CE: Hindu; Krishna r.; Mahbubnagar; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Ramanathaswamy/Rameswaram/Ramalingeswarar Temple (Ramanathaswamy-Shiva-Hindu; 11/12 Jyotirlingas; 4-Char Dham; legend: where Rama prayed to Shiva for sins committed against Ravana; Rameswaram/Pamban i.; Tamil Nadu)

·         Ramappa/Ramalingeswara Temple (1213 c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Warangal; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Ramatheertham/Rama Temple (Ramachandra Swamy-Sita Devi-Lakshmana-Hindu; Ramatheertham; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Ramgarh

·         Rameshwara Temple (Vijayanagara Hoysala-Dravida Hindu; Keladi; Shimoga; Karnataka)

·         Ramnathi (16th c.CE: Ramnath-Shiva-Hindu; Goa)

·         Ranganathaswamy Temple (16th c.CE: Ranganathaswamy-Vishnu-Hindu; Vijayanagara style; Bangalore)

·         Rangdum Gompa (18th c.CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Suru v.; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Rangnath Dol (Shiva-Hindu; Joysagar Tank; Brahmaputra r.; Assam)

·         Rani Sati Temple (1600 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan)

·         Ratnagiri (6th c.CE: Gupta; Buddh. mahavihara; Jajpur, Orissa)

·         Ratnagiri Murugan Temple (14th c.CE: Murugan-Hindu; Vellore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Ravalnath (Shaivite-Hindu; Goa)

·         Rektha Kanda Swamy Temple (8th c.CE: birthplace of Sri Ayyappan-Hindu; Omallur, Pathanamthitta)

·         Rizong Gompa (1831 CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Roda

·         Rozabal Shrine (Tomb of Jesus?; Shrinagar; Kashmir)

·         Rudranath (Shiva-Hindu; 5-Panch Kedar; legend: Pandava, Mahabharata; Garhwal, Uttarakhand)

·         Rudreswar Temple (1744 CE: Hindu; Brahmaputra r.; Guwahati; Assam)

·         Rumtek Gompa (16th c.CE: Kagyu Tib.Buddh.; Gangtok; Sikkim)

·         Salsette

·         Sanchi (3rd c.BCE: Buddh. Stupa; Besnagar; Madhya Pradesh)

·         Sangameswara Temple (Shiva-Hindu; shiva linga; confluence of Krishna and Bhavanasi r.; Kurnool; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sani Gompa (2nd c.CE: Kagyu Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Zanskar; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Sankar Gompa (Gelugpa Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Sankissa (accd. to commentaries of Tipitaka; ancient city where Siddartha Gautama Buddha returned to earth; Fatehgarh, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Sannihit Sarovar (meeting point of 7 sacred Saraswatis; Kurukshetra; Haryana)

·         Saptakoteshwar (12th c.CE: Shaivite-Hindu; Narve; Goa)

·         Saptharishiswarar (4600 BCE?: Saptharishiswarar/Shiva-Hindu; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sarangapani Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sarnath/Mrigadava/Isipatana/Rishipattana (5th c.BCE: ancient city where Siddhartha Gautama Buddha taught the dharma; 2nd c.BCE: Buddh.monastery complex; Dhamekh Stupa; Ashoka Pillar; Chaukhandi Stupa- Islamic; Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Saundatti fort (875-1230 CE: Hindu-Jain; Ratta d.capital; inscriptions; Renuka Sagara reservoir, Yallammagudda temple, Navilatirhta dam, Savadatti Chalukya temples: Puradeshwara, Ankeshwara; Belgaum, Karnataka)

·         Sekhareswar Temple (1000 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Lathanga, Paradip, Jagatsinghpur, Orissa)

·         Shambhulinga temple (11th c.CE: Chalukya Shiva-Parvati-Hindu; Kundgol; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Shamlaji/Dhodi Dhwaja Vada (Vishnu-Hindu; Sabarkantha; Bhiloda-Modassa; Gujarat)

·         Shanka Basadi (8th c.CE: Kalyani-Chalukya Jain; Lakshmeshwara; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Shankaracharya/Jyesteshwara Temple (200 BCE/9th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Srinagar; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Shankaragaurishvara Temple (883-902 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Patan; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Shanta Durga Temple (12th c.CE: Shantadurga-Hindu; Kavalem; Goa)

·         Shashur Monastery (17th c.CE: Drugpa Tib.Buddh.; Lahul, Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Shey Gompa (1655 CE: Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Shitla Mata Temple (Durga-Hindu; 52 Shakti Peeth; Patna, Bihar)

·         Shivkhori [“Shiva’s cave”] (Shiva-Hindu; cave temple; legend of Bhasmasura; Reasi; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Shringeri (8th c.CE: f.Shankara; southern-Shringeri branch for Advaita Vedanta-Hindu; Sringeri Sharada Peetham matha est. by Adi Shankaracharya; legend of Adi Shankaracharya: site where the cobra shaded the frog during spawning; 14th c.CE: Sharadamba temple, Vidyashankara temple, inside Rashistambhas- zodiac pillars; Tunga r.; Chikmaglur; Karnataka)

·         Shringapuram Mahadeva Temple (10th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; 5 linga; inscriptions; Thrissur, Kerala)

·         Shringeri Sharadamba temple (8th c.CE: Sharada/Saraswati-Hindu; Sree Sharada Suprabhata Stotram compostion; Tunga r.; Chikmaglur; Karnataka)

·         Siddhesvara Temple (11th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Haveri; Karnataka)

·         Sidi Saiyyed Mosque [SR](1573 CE: Islamic; Ahmedabad)

·         Sikkal Singaravelan Temple (Muruga-Singaravelan-Hindu; Arupadaiveedu- 6 abodes of Muruga; legend: Kamadenu; Sikkal, Kumbakonam, Tamil Badu)

·         Simhachalam [“Lion Hill”]/Simhadri (1098 CE: avatar Narasimha-Vishnu-Hindu; Visakhapatnam; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sirsangi Kalika Temple (1148 CE: Hindu; festivals: Ugadi, palenquins of Kalamma; near Saundatti; Belgaum; Karnataka)

·         Sisupalgarh (300 BCE; Khurda); Takht Bhai (100 BCE: Buddhist monastic ruins; Mardan)

·         Sita Mai Temple (Sita-Hindu; Sitamai; Karnal; Haryana)

·         Sivadol (1734 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Sivasagar; Assam)

·         Sogal (Hindu: Someshwara temple; near Munavalli and Saundatti; Belgaum; Karnataka)

·         Someshwara temple complex (11th c.CE: Chalukya Shiva-Hindu; Nandi and Shiva idols, 8th c.CE: Kannada inscriptions; Lakshmeshwara; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Someshwara (11th c.CE: Chalukya Shiva-Hindu; Kolar; Karnataka)

·         Somarama (Shiva-Hindu; Pancharama Kshetras; Sivalinga; Ramachandrapuram; E.Godavari; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Somnath

·         Sonana Khetlaji (1200 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Sonana, Pali, Rajasthan)

·         Spituk Gompa (11th c.CE: Gustor Festival-11th mo.27-29th day; Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Sravasti (5th c.BCE: Siddartha Gautama Buddha pilgrimage site; Angulimala stupa, Anathapindika stupa, Jain Tirthankara, Gandhakuti- Buddha’s hut, Anandabodhi tree; Rajagaha; Uttar Pradesh)

·         Sree Indilayappan Temple, Marayikkodu (1500 BP: Shiva-Vishnu-Hindu; Kottarakkara, Kerala)

·         Sree Poornathrayesa Temple (Dwarpara Yuga?; Vishnu-Santhana Gopala Moorthy-Hindu; Tripunithura, Kochi, Kerala)

·         Sri Adikesavaperumal Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 devyadesams; Kanyakumari, Thiruvattar, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Appakkudathaan Perumal Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal Temple (Chola Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Devaadi Raja Perumal Temple/Thiruvazhunthoor (Chola Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Therazhunthoor, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Hara Saabha Vimocchana Perumal Temple/Thirukkandiyur (Chola Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Kandiyur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Jagan Mohini Kesava Swamy Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Ryali; E.Godavari; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sri Kalahasthi (12th c.CE: Vayu-Shiva-Parvati-Hindu; Kalahasthi; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Srinivasa Perumal Temple (1600 CE: Srinivasa-Vishnu-Hindu; Kodavasal, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Pundarikashan Perumal Temple/Thiruvellarai (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Purushothaman Perumal Temple/Thirukkarambanoor (Brahma-Shiva-Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Uttamar Kovil, Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Rajiv Lochan Mandir (Vamana-Narasimha-Vishnu-Hindu; 3 river confluence/Triveni Sangam- Mahanadi, Pairi, Sondur; Rajim; Chhattisgarh)

·         Sripada Sri Vallabha Samsthanam (14th c.CE: Hindu; Pithapuram; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sri Raja Rajeshwara Kshetram (Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple (12th c.CE: Ranganatha-Vishnu-Hindu; Nellore; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple/Srirangam (2000 BP: Ranganatha-Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; 8 Svayam Vyakta Ksetras; largest functioning Hindu temple in world; Srirangam, Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Sri Nookambika Ammavari Temple (renovated 1611 CE: Hindu; Gavarapalem; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sri Ujjaini Mahakali Temple (17th c.CE: Mahankali-Hindu; Secunderabad; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Sri Vadivazhagiya Nambi Perumal Temple/Thiru Anbil (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Pancharanga Kshetrams; Kollidam r.; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Venkatesa Perumal Temple (16th c.CE: Vishnu-Hindu; Tirupur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Srivilliputhur Divya Desam (788 CE: Andal-Vatapatrasayee-Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Srivilliputhur, Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Vishnumurthy Temple (600 BP: Vishnu-Hindu; shrine; Mangalore; Karnataka)

·         Sripuram (Hindu; Vellore, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Chandramouleeswarar Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; ruins: 108 Shiva temples; Hariharan Kundram hill; Arungundram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Sri Raghotham Peeta (1300 BP: Hindu monastery; Ashoka; Gokarna; Karnataka)

·         Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple (Ranganatha-Vishnu-Hindu; Shivanasamudra; Mandya; Karnataka)

·         Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple (9th c.CE: Ranganatha-Vishnu-Hindu; Srirangapatna; Mandya; Karnataka)

·         Stakna Gompa (16th c.CE: Drugpa Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Sthaneswar Mahadev (Shiva-Hindu; holy water tank; linga; Kuru penance; Thanesar; Kurukshetra)

·         Stok Gompa (14th c.CE: Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Stongdey Gompa (1052 CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Zanskar v.; Padum; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Sudi (11th c.CE: Chalukya Shiva-Hindu; temples: Twin Towered Shiva, Mallikarjuna, Naga Kunda-well; Sudi; Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Sukreswar Temple (1744 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Brahmaputra r.; Itakhuli hill; Guwahati; Assam)

·         Sundha Mata Temple (1100 CE: Hindu; inscriptions describing the victory of Chauhans over the Parmaras; Sundha, Bhinmal, Rajastan)

·         Sun Temple (1026 CE: Surya-Hindu; Modhera; Gujarat)

·         Surya Sadashiva Temple (700 BP: Surya-Shiva-Hindu; Nada; Dakshina Kannada; Karnataka)

·         Suryanar Kovil (1000 CE: Chola Surya-Navagraha-Hindu; Navagraha temple; Suryanarkoil, Tamil Nadu)

·         Swamimalai Murugan Temple (Muruga-Hindu; Arupadaiveedu- 6 abodes of Muruga; Kumbakonam, Tamil Badu)

·         Tabo Monastery (996 CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.; Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Talagunda (Kadamba village; 5th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu: Pranaveshwara temple; Talagunda pillar Kannada inscriptions; Shimoga; Karnataka)

·         Talakad (350-1050 CE: Gangas; 11th c.CE: Chola; 12 c.CE: Hoysala Hindu; 5 Lingam temples: Pathaleshwara, Maruleshwara, Arkeshwara, Vaidyanatheshwara, Mallikarjuna, Keethinarayana; Kaveri r.; Mysore; Karnataka)

·         Tangyud Monastery (11th c.CE: Drugpa Tib.Buddh.; Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Tanjore

·         Tashiding Gompa (1717 CE: Nyingma Tib.Buddh.; Sikkim)

·         Tayul Monastery (17th c.CE: Drugpa Tib.Buddh.; Lahul, Spiti; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Tawang Monastery (1680 CE: Buddh.; Arunachal Pradesh)

·         Thikse Gompa (15th c.CE: Gelug Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Leh; Jammu-Kashmir)

·         Thiruchendur Murugan Temple (Senthilandavan/Muruga-Hindu; 6-Arupadaiveedu; Tiruchendur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruchsirupuliyoor/Arulmaakadal Perumal Temple (Chola Vishnu-Hindu; Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruchuzhial (Advaita Vedanta-Hindu; 12th Tevara Stalam; birthplace of Ramana Maharishi; Manamadurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirumuruganathaswamy Temple (Shiva-Hindu; 7-Sivastalam in Kongu Nadu; Tiruppur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirunadhikkara Cave Temple (7th c.CE: Jain-Hindu; 9-10th c.CE: frescoes depict Ramayana and Mahabharata; Thiruvattar, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruevvul (Chola Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Tiruvallur, Arakkonam, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirukadalmallai (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirukkadigai (Vishnu Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Sholinghur, Vellore, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirukutralam (Shiva-Trimurti-Hindu; 64 Shakti Peetham; Tenkasi, Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirukkadaiyur Mayanam/Thirumeignanam (11th c.CE: Chola Shiva-Hindu; Thirukkadaiyur, Kumbakonam, Tamil Badu)

·         Thirumeyyam (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Pudukottai, Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirunana (Shiva-Hindu; 7-Sivastalam in Kongu Nadu; Bhavani, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirunarayanapuram (legend: Dasavataram-Vishnu; Vaishnavite-Hindu; 40 sacred ponds- kulams; Melkote; Karnataka)

·         Thirunelli Temple (962 CE: Chola-Vishnu-Hindu; Narasimha Purana, Padma Purana; Brahmagiri hill; near Manathavady; Kerala)

·         Thiruppandikodumudi (Shiva-Hindu; 7-Sivastalam in Kongu Nadu; Khaveri r.; Tamil Nadu)

·         Thirupparamkunram Murugan Temple (8th c.CE: Jain rock-cut cave temple; Murugan-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Thirupparamkunram, Madurai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruppullani (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruppunavayil (Shiva-Hindu; 7-Tevara Stalams; 14 lingams; Pudukkotai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruputkuzhi (Vijayaraghavaswamy/Moolavar-Rama-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruthani Murugan Temple (Murugan-Hindu; festival: Krittikais; Thiruthani, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple (1000 BP: Krishna-Hindu; Thrissur, Kerala)

·         Thiruvanaikaval (2nd c.CE: Chola Jambukeshwara/Shiva-Akilandeswari/Parvati-Hindu; 5 Pancha Bootha Sthalams- Water; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruvannamalai Arunachaleswara (5 Pancha Bootha Sthalams- Fire;)

·         Thiruvanchikulam (7th c.CE: Mahadeva Temple; Siva-Hindu; Kerala)

·         Thiruvidandai (Pallava Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Varaha Kshetram; Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thiruvotriyur Temple (Aadhipureeswarar/Shiva-Hindu; Thiruvotriyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Thotlakonda (2000 BP: Hinayana Buddhist monastery complex; Visakhapatnam; Andra Pradesh)

·         Thottipal Bhagavati Temple (108 Devi temple; Hindu; Thrissur, Kerala)

·         Thousand Pillar Temple (1163 CE: Shiva-Vishnu-Surya-Hindu; Hanamakonda-Warangal; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Thrikkavu Temple (108 Durga Hindu; Malapuram; Kerala)

·         Thrikodithanam Mahavishnu Temple (800 CE: Chera Vaishnava-Hindu: inscriptions; 5 Pandava; Mahabharata; Changanassery, Kerala)

·         Tigawa

·         Tirumala Venkateswara Temple (300 CE: Venkateswara-Vishnu-Hindu; Chittor; Tirupati; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Tiruppukkozhiyur (Shiva-Hindu; 7-Shivastalam in Kongu Nadu; Avinasi, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu)

·         Tiruttalinathar Temple (Shiva-Hindu; 7-Tevara Stalam; Thiruputhur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Tiruvadanai (Shiva-Hindu; 8-Tevara Stalam; Tiruvadanai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Tiruvaikavur Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Tiruvaikavur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Tiruvekkaa (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Tiruvelukkai (Rama-Hindu; 108 Divyadesams; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Trikuteshwara (1050-1200 CE: Chalukya Hindu; Gadag; Hubli-Dharwad; Karnataka)

·         Trilokpur (1573 CE: Bala Sundri-Durga-Hindu: triangle of 3 Durga Temples, or faces; Dhyanu Bhagt Temple, Shiva Temple, Lalita Mata Temple; Trilokpur; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple (Hemadpanthi Shiva-Hindu; Jyotirlinga; Godavari r.; Trimbak; Nashik; Maharashtra)

·         Tripurantaka Temple (1070 CE: Chalukya Hindu: 80 inscriptions- Shaiva, Vaishnava, Jain, Buddhist; Kamasutra relief on friezes; Ganda-Bherunda- 2 headed mythical bird sculpture; naga door figures; dikpala-guardians; sculptures- Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu; Shimoga; Karnataka)

·         Tripura Sundari Temple (1501 CE: Hindu; 52-Shakti Peethas; Udaipur, Tripura)

·         Triyuginarayan/Akhand Dhuni Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; where Shiva married Parvati with Vishnu as witness; Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand)

·         Tsuklakhang Palace (Tib.Buddh.; Pang Lhabsol, Kagyad, Losar festivals; Gangtok; Sikkim)

·         Tungnath (Shiva-Hindu; 5-Panch Kedar; legend: Pandava, Mahabharata; Garhwal, Uttarakhand)

·         Ucchi Pillayar Temple/Rockfort/Thayumanaswamy (7th c.CE: Shiva-Ganesha-Hindu; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Udayagiri (Buddh. complex: stupa/viharas; Orissa)

·         Udupi Sri Krishna Matta (13th c.CE: Vaisnava-Krishna-Hindu; Udupi; Karnataka)

·         Umamaheshwaram (Shiva-Hindu; Hyderbad; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Uma Nanda Temple (1681 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Peacock i.; Brahmaputra r.; Guwahati; Assam)

·         Undavalli caves (4-5th c.CE: Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva-Trimurti-Hindu; rock-cut caves; Vijayawada; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Uppiliappan/Thiruvinnagar Temple (Vishnu-Hindu; 108 Devyadesams; Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Uttamar Kovil (Trimurti-Hindu; Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu)

·         Vadakkunnathan Temple (b.Parashurama; Shiva-Hindu; Mahabharata murals; Thrissur, Kerala)

·         Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga (Shiva-Hindu; 12 Jyotirlingas; 52 Shakti Peeths; Deoghar; Jharkhand)

·         Vaishali (6th c.BCE: ancient city; Ashokan pillar; where Gautama Buddha preached last sermon; Bihar)

·         Vaishno Devi (Vaishnavi-Shakti-Hindu; Katra; Reasi; Jammu and Kashmir)

·         Vaitheeswaran [“Lord Doctor”] Temple (Shiva-Navagraha-Hindu; 9-Navagraha; Vaitheeswaran, Tamil Nadu)

·         Vajreshvari/Vajrayogini (Mahabharata times: Vajreshvari-Vajrayogini-Parvati-Hindu; legend of Vajrayogini; Nagarkot; Kangra; Himachal Pradesh)

·         Vallabhapuram (Sri Vallabha-Hindu: Andhra Pradesh)

·         Valluvan Kadav Sree Muthapan (400 BP: Hindu; Kerala)

·         Vajreshwari Temple/Shree Vajreshwari Yogini Devi Mandir (1739 CE: Hindu; legend: Puranas; Thane; Mumbai; Maharashtra)

·         Vanniappar Temple (1000 CE: Hindu; Azwarkuruchi, Tirunelveli)

·         Varadavinayaka (1725 CE: Ganesha-Hindu; Ashtavinayak Ganesh temple; Mahad, Raigad, Maharashtra)

·         Varadharaja Perumal Temple (1053 CE: Pallavas; Vishnu-Hindu; Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu)

·         Varaha Cave Temple (7th c.CE: Hindu; rock-cut temple; Mamallapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Varanasi/Benares [d.after the confluence of rivers Varuna and Assi](accd.legend-Ramayana, Rigveda, Purana, Mahabarata: 8000 BP f.Shiva/3000 BP: sacred city; Uttar Pradesh)

·         Vayalur Murugan Temple (800 CE: Chola Muruga-Hindu; Trichy, Tamil Nadu)

·         Veera Narayana Temple (1200 CE: Hoysala Vaishnava-Hindu; mantapa, vimana, parapet wall relief; Chikmagalur; Karnataka)

·         Veezhinathar Kovil (Veezhinathar-Shiva-Hindu; Thiruveezhimizhalai, Tamil Nadu)

·         Venkateshwara Temple at Ramenahalli (250 BP: Hindu; Gadag; Karnataka)

·         Venjamakoodal (800 CE: Shiva-Hindu; 7-Shivastalam in Kongu Nadu; Karur, Tamil Nadu)

·         Vijayanagara [MA](1200 CE; Bellary, Karnataka)

·         Vikramasila (8th c.CE: Buddh.university; Bihar)

·         Virupaksa Temple (7th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Virupaksa consort of Pampa; Vijyanagar ruins; festivals: chariot, Virupaksa-Pampa marriage; Tungabhadra/Pampa r.; Hampi; Bellary; Karnataka)

·         Vishalakshi Temple (Sati-Hindu; 52-Shakti Peethas; Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh)

·         Vishnupad Mandir (1787 CE: Vishnu-Hindu; Gaya, Bihar)

·         Vishnu Temple, Deogarh (500 CE: Gupta-Hindu; Deogarh, Madhya Pradesh)

·         Viswanatha Swamy Temple, Palakkad (1464 CE: Siva-Hindu; Palakkad, Kerala)legend: Rama resting place on way to Ravana;

·         Vithoba Temple, Pandharpur (12th c.CE: Vithoba-Krishna-Vishnu-Hindu; Pandharpur, Maharashtra)

·         Walkeshwar Temple (1127 CE: Shiva-Hindu; Banganga tank; Malabar hill; Walkeshwar, Mumbai, Maharastra)

·         Yadagirigutta/Sri Lakshminarasimha Swamy Temple (Narasimha-Hindul Nalgonda; Hyderabad; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Yaganti/Sri Yaganti Uma Maheswara Temple (15th c.CE: Shiva-Hindu; Pushkarini holy baths; Agastya caves; Venkateswara cave; Veera Brahmam cave; Yaganti; Kurnool; Andhra Pradesh)

·         Yamunotri (19th c.CE: Yamuna-Hindu; 4-Chota Char Dham; where sage Markandeya wrote Markandeya Purana; Uttarkashi; Uttarakhand)

·         Yelluru Sri Vishweshwara Temple (Shiva-Hindu; Devaayathana style; Udupi; Karnataka)

·         Zangla Gompa (1823 CE: Sandor Korosi Csoma made first Eng-Tib dictionary here; Tib.Buddh.monastery in Ladakh; Zanskar v.; Jammu-Kashmir)


INDONESIA: [Javanese-Hindu temple (candi)]

·         Arca Bugisan (7 Buddha and Bodhisattva statues; Yogyakarta; S Prambanan Plain)

·         Arca Dwarapala (1222 CE; Malang; E.Java)

·         Arca Totok Kerot (Kediri, Java)

·         Borobudur (9th c.CE: Magelang, Java)

·         Candi Agung (Hindu k.: Negara Dipa; Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan)

·         Calon Arang (site inspired Balinese Leak dance; Kediri, Java)

·         Candi Bacem (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Badut (8th c.CE: Shivaite temple; Malang, E.Java)

·         Candi Batu Jaya (6th c.CE: Buddhist stupa compound; Karawang, W.Java)

·         Candi Biaro Bahal (South Tapanuli, Sumatra)

·         Candi Boro (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Brahu (Buddhist temple; Trowulan, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Candi Canggal (8th c.CE: Buddhist complex; Yogyakarta)

·         Candi Cangkuang (Shiva temple; Garut, W.Java)

·         Candi Cetho [V](15th c.CE: Javanese-Hindu temple; Surakarta; Mount Lawu)

·         Candi Dorok (Kediri, Java)

·         Candi Gambar Wetan (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Gana (reliefs, statues; Yogyakarta; W Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Gentong (Yuan-Ming ceramics; Trowulan, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Candi Jago (13th c.CE: scenes of Mahabharata epic w/underworld demons; Malang, E.Java)

·         Candi Jawi (13th c.CE: Buddhist funerary temple, terraced sanctuaries, meditation grottoes, sacred pools; 80 sites; Tretes, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Candi Kalasan (8th c.CE: Buddhist temple; Yogyakarta; W Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Kalicilik (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Karangnongko (Yogyakarta; Klaten Regency)

·         Candi Kedulan (temple foundation; Yogyakarta; W Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Kidal (1248 CE: Javanese-Hindu temple; Malang)

·         Candi Kotes (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Laras (Buddhist k.: Tanjung Puri; Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan)

·         Candi Lumbung (Buddhist temple complex: 1 central, 16 smaller surrounding; Yogyakarta; N Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Mendut (8th c.CE: Mahayana Buddhist temple; Kedu plain, Java)

·         Candi Merak (10th c.CE: 2 Hindu temples w/reliefs; Yogyakarta; Klaten Regency)

·         Candi Muara Takus (11-12th c.CE: Sriwijaya e.; Buddhist temple complex; Kampar Regency, Riau, Sumatra)

·         Candi Muaro Jambi (11-13th c.CE: Melayu k.; Buddhist temple complex; Jambi, Riau, Sumatra)

·         Candi Muteran (Trowulan, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Candi Ngawen (8th c.CE: Hindu-Buddhist: 5 aligned sanctuaries; lion sculptures; Yogyakarta)

·         Candi Pawon (8th c.CE: Buddhist temple dedicated to Kuvera, god of wealth; Kedu plain, Java)

·         Candi Penataran (12-15th c.CE: Majapahit k. Javanese-Hindu temple complex; stepped pyramid; Blitar)

·         Candi Plaosan (9th c.CE: Hindu-Buddhist temple complex: 2 main w/reliefs; Yogyakarta; N Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Plumbangan (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Rambut Monte (Malang, E.Java)

·         Candi Sajiwan (Buddhist temple w/reliefs; Yogyakarta; S Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Sambisari (10th c.CE: underground Hindu temple buried by eruptions from Mount Merapi; Yogyakarta)

·         Candi Sari (8th c.CE: Buddhist sanctuary w/9 stupas; Yogyakarta; W Prambanan Plain)

·         Candi Sawentar (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Segaran (pond; Trowulan, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Candi Sewu (8th c.CE: Buddh.; Prambanan; Java)

·         Candi Simping (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Singosari (1304 CE: Malang, E.Java)

·         Candi Songgoriti (Malang, E.Java)

·         Candi Sukuh [V](15th c.CE: Javanese-Hindu temple; linga-yoni relief; Surakarta; Mount Lawu)

·         Candi Sumberawan (Malang, E.Java)

·         Candi Sumbernanas (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Surawana (1390 CE: Majapahit k.; Kediri, Java)

·         Candi Tegowangi (Kediri, Java)

·         Candi Tepas (Blitar, Java)

·         Candi Tikus (13th c.CE: Majapahit capital; irrigation system; Trowulan, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Candi Tondowongso (Kediri, Java)

·         Candi Wringin Branjang (Blitar, Java)

·         Dieng Plateau [“Abode of the Gods”](7-8th c.CE: originally 400 Hindu temples-only 8 remain; oldest Candi in central Java: Abiyasa, Arjuna, Bima, Darawati, Dwarawati, Gatotkaca, Pandu, Parikesit, Puntadewa, Magersari, Nakula, Sadewa, Sembadra, Senjaka, Srikandi; Wonosobo, Java)

·         Gapura Bajang Ratu (Trowulan, Java)

·         Gedong Songo(8-9th c.CE: Hindu complex; Semarang)

·         Gerbang Wringin Lawang (Trowulan, Java)

·         Gua Selomangleng (Kediri, Java)

·         Gunung Sari (ruins of three secondary temples and primary foundations remain; Yogyakarta)

·         Gunung Wukir (oldest Javanese incriptions; ruins of three secondary temples and primary foundations remain; Yogyakarta)

·         Kidal

·         Maros (Paleolithic)

·         Masjid Agung Demak (15th c.CE: Islamic; Demak, Java)

·         Masjid Sultan Ssuriansyah (1700 CE: Islamic; South Kalimantan)

·         Pura Besakih [“Mother Temple of Besakih”] (14th c.CE: Agama Hindu Dharma; Bali; Mt. Agung-Mt. Meru replica)

·         Prambanan Plain/Roro Jonggrang (850 CE: Mataram k.: 237 Shivaite temple complex; flanked by Vishnu and Brahma temples; Ramayana relief; Yogyakarta, Java)

·         Pura Luhur (11th c.CE: Hindu Balinese Sea Temple; Pecatu village, Kuta South; Uluwatu)

·         Ratu Boko (8-9th c.CE: Hindu-Buddhist temple w/royal garden and bathing pool; surrounding temples: Arca Gopolo, Banyunibo, Barong, Dawangsari, Ijo, Watugudig, Abang, Gampingan, Sentono, Situs Payak; E Yogyakarta; S Prambanan)

·         Sangiran (Meganthropus: Surakarta, Java)

·         Singasari

·         Tanah Lot (15th c.CE: Hindu Balinese Sea Temple; Tabanan; Denpasar)

·         Tirtha Empul Temple (926 CE: Warmadewa d. Hindu; purifying pool; Bali)

·         Lake Tondano (Neolithic)

·         Trowulan (13th c.CE: Majapahit capital; Candi: Tikus, Brahu, Gentong, Muteran, Kolam Segaran, Gapura Bajang Ratu, Gerbang Wringin Lawang; Mojokerto, Java; Mount Penanggungan)

·         Ngandong (250-28k BP: tropical-Neanderthal)



·         Adur Gushnasp (3rd-4th c.BCE: Zoroastrian fire temple; believed to have been created by Ashura Mazda; Mount Khajeh; Lake Hamun; Sistan)

·         Apadana (500 BCE: Persepolis)

·         Bisitun [SR](transitional Neanderthal; 6th c.BCE: earliest epigraphical reference to “ariya” (sim.Aryan); 400 BCE; Jeyhounabad; Kermanshah)

·         Choqa Zanbil (2400 BCE: Elamite; 1200 BCE; Dezfoul; Susa; Ahvaz)

·         Darband (cave)

·         Do-Ashkaft (cave)

·         Ecbatana [SR](600 BCE; Hamadan)

·         Fatima al-Masumeh Shrine (17th c.CE: Shia Islamic; Qom)

·         Firuzabad (224 CE: Sassanid)

·         Ganj Par (Paleolithic; Gilan)

·         Ganj Dareh (Neolithic)

·         Ghagha Shahr (3rd-4th c.BCE: citadel complex w/Zoroastrian fire temple, Adur Gushnasp; believed to have been created by Ashura Mazda; Mount Khajeh; Lake Hamun; Sistan)

·         Gorgan (600 BCE)

·         Imam Reza Shrine (818 CE; ruined 993 CE; r.1009-1310 CE: Shia Islamic; contains mausoleum of 8th Imam of Twelver Shi’ites; Mashhad)

·         Jameh Mosque of Isfahan (771 CE: Shia Islamic; Isfahan)

·         Jamkaran Mosque (984 CE: Shia Islamic; Jamkaran, Qom)

·         Jiroft Civilization (3000 BCE)

·         Jondi Shapur (271 CE; Gundeshapur)

·         Ka’ba-i Zartosht (Cube of Zoroaster; 5th c.BCE: Persepolis)

·         Kashafrud (Lower Paleolithic)

·         Konar Sandal (3rd m.BCE: Bronze Age; Jiroft)

·         Kunji Cave

·         Mar Tarik

·         Naqsh-e Rustam (1000 BCE: Darius tombs; Persepolis; Marv Dasht)

·         Pasargadae (Batrakatas; 6th c.BCE: Tomb of Cyrus the Great; Persepolis; Marv Dasht)

·         Persepolis/Takht-e Jamshid [MA](515 BCE; Marv Dasht)

·         Qal’a-e Kafaran/Qal’a-e Sam (3rd-4th c.BCE: double citadel complex consisting of Kok-e Zal and Chehel Dokhtaran w/Zoroastrian fire temple; believed to have been created by Ashura Mazda; Mount Khajeh; Lake Hamun; Sistan)

·         Qaleh Bozi Caves

·         Saint Stephanos Monastery (9th c.CE: Armenian church; Arax r.; Jolfa)

·         Saint Thaddeus Monastery (68 CE: 1st church dedicated to Saint Jude; 10th c.CE: apse; earthquake damage in 1319; 1329 CE: rebuilt; Maku)

·         Shah Mosque/Masjed-e Shah (1611 CE: Shia Islamic; Isfahan)

·         Shahr-e Sukteh/Burnt City (3200 BCE: Jiroft; Bronze Age; Zahedan)

·         Soltaniyeh (1312 CE)

·         Susa (7000 BCE; Ahvaz)

·         Takht-i-Suleiman (5th c.BCE; Phraaspa; Takab)

·         Tangeh Bolaghi (5000 BCE: skeleton near Pasargadae)

·         Taq-e Bostan [SR](226 CE: Sassanid Empire; Kermanshah)

·         Tepe Musyan

·         Warwasi (Middle Paleolithic)


IRAQ: [25,000 AS][step pyramid (ziggurat)]

·         Al Abbas Mosque (680 CE: Islamic; Karbala)

·         Al Askari Mosque (944 CE: Shia Islamic; shrine of 10th and 11th twelver; Samarra)

·         Al-Kadhimiya Mosque (7th c.CE: Shia Islamic; tombs of 7th and 9th twelve; Baghdad)

·         Al-Mada’in (Taq-I Kisra ruins) (312 BCE: Seleucia and Ctesiphon; Salman Pak)

·         Al-Qurnah (Euphrates r. and Tigris r. junction; possible site for Garden of Edin)

·         Arbela

·         Ashur

·         Babylon (3000 BCE: capital of Babylonia for millennium; 689 BCE: sacked by Assyrian Nebuchadnezzar; Al Hillah)

·         Baghdad [SR](762 CE; Bagdad museum contains a galvanized cell battery made w/ clay pot)

·         Balawat

·         Barda Balka

·         Borsippa

·         Colossal Bulls [MA](Nimrud; 713 BCE: Dur-Sharrukin/Khorsabad; Nineveh/Mosul)

·         Ctesiphon

·         Dur Kurigaizu

·         Dur Sharrukin [“Fortress of Sargon”](706 BCE: Khorsabad)

·         Eridu (5000 BCE: artifacts; traditional birthplace of Abraham; Basra)

·         Great Mosque of Samarra (848-51 CE: Islamic; Malwiya tower; Samarra)

·         Hassuna

·         Hatra (300 BCE)

·         Imam Ali Mosque (977 CE: Shia Islamic; Najaf)

·         Imam Husayn Mosque (680 CE: Shia Islamic; Karbala)

·         Isin (2000 BCE; Ishan al-Bahriyat)

·         Jarmo (7000 BCE: Kirkuk)

·         Kish

·         Lagash

·         Nimrud (1300 BCE; 883-859 BCE: Assyrian capital under Ashurbanipal II; Mosul)

·         Nineveh (1800 BCE; oldest city of Assyria; 704-681 BCE: capital under Sennacherib; Mosul)

·         Nippur (Sumerian capital; cuneiform archive)

·         Nuzi

·         Palagawra

·         Samarra (6000 BCE)

·         Shanidar cave (Neanderthal; 80,000 BP; Kurdistan)

·         Sippar

·         Shuruppak

·         Tepe Gawra

·         Ubaid (3500 BCE: terra-cotta figurine w/cone head and large eyes now in Iraq Museum)

·         Ur (3000 BCE; Tell el-Mukayyar)

·         Uruk (Ubaid culture; legendary walls built by Gilgamesh)

·         Zarzi


Ante-Diluvial Flight Corridor (Sitchin): (see “vortex sites”)

1)  Eridu (Home in Faraway Built); (c.5400 BCE; Tell Abu Shahrain; An Nasiriyah)

2)  Bad-Tibira (Bright Place Where the Ores are Made Final) (Tell al-Madineh)

3)  Laraak (Seeing the Bright Glow); (2800 BCE; Tell Sankarah)

4)  Sippar (Bird City); (Tell Abu Habbah)

5)  Shuruppak (Place of the Utmost Well-Being) (3000 BCE; Tell Fara; Al-Qadisiyyah)

6)  Laarsa (Seeing the Red Light); (2800 BCE; Tell Sankarah)

7)  Nibiruki (Earth Place of Nibiru) (Nuffar; Nippur)

8)  Lagash (2800 BCE; Tell Sankarah)



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Ahwat [MA](Bronze age: 1160 BCE: Shardana sea-people; sim.nuraghe; Caesarea, Manasseh)

·         Al-Aqsa Mosque (705 CE: Mamluk Islamic; Dome of the Rock/Temple Mount; Jerusalem)

·         Al-Khadra Mosque (1288-90 CE: Mamluk Islamic; Nablus)

·         Alexandrium (104 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress)

·         Amathus (1100 BCE: Iron Age; 141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress)

·         Amud (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)

·         Ashkelon (2000 BCE)

·         Atlit Yam [MA](6900-6300 BCE: Neolithic: submerged stone semicircle; 8-12m beneath sea level; findings: ground fills containing flints, 2 layers animal bones, wells, megaliths w/cup marks, 10 flexed burials w/human skeletons revealing earliest known cases of TB, fish=hooks, anthropomorphic stone stelae, stone arrowheads, sickle blades, axes, plant remains-seeds, granary weevils; Bay of Atlit at mouth of Oren r.; off coast of Atlit; 8500 BP: possible Etna m. eruption caused 10-storey/40m tsunami to engulf Mediterranean coastal cities w/in hrs.)

·         Avdat (3rd c.BCE; Ramon; Negev)

·         Bethsaida (Jesus fish and loaves; Golan)

·         Beit She’an (1500 BCE: Scythopolis; Jezreel v.)

·         Caesarea Maritima [MA](25 BCE)

·         Cathedral of St.James (12th c.CE: Armenian church; Old Jerusalem)

·         Capernaum (150 BCE)

·         Church of the Holy Sepulchre/Chirch of Resurrection (2nd c.CE: Temple of Aphrodite; 4th c.CE: Constantine’s church: great basilica/Martyrium, colonnaded atrium/Triportica/Golgotha/where Jesus was crucified, rotunda/Anastasis-“Resurrection”/remains of rock-cut-room/burial site of Jesus; kokhim-tombs; damaged by fire in 614; repaired in 630; destroyed 1009; reconstruction in 1027-8; 1099 CE: taken by knights of the 1st Crusade; 1149 CE: Romanesque; 1187 CE: captured by Saladin; third Crusade treaty; 1244 CE: captured by Khwarezmians; renovations in 1555; fire damage 1808; Old Jerusalem)

·         Cyprus (141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress; Dead Sea; Jericho)

·         Docus (141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress; Jericho)

·         Dome of the Rock (691 CE: Islamic; oldest Islamic building in the world; on the Temple Mount; Jerusalem)

·         Esbus (Bronze Age; 141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress)

·         Es Skhul (250-45k BP: Neanderthal; Haifa)

·         Galilea (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)

·         Great Mosque of Gaza/Great Omari Mosque (1340 CE: Mamluk Islamic; site of ancient Hellenic temple and 5th c.CE Byzantine church; Gaza)

·         Ibrahimi Mosque/Sanctuary of Abraham/Cave of the Patriarchs/Cave of Machpelah [“Cave of the Double Tombs”] (21st-19th c.BCE: Abraham; Islamic; Christians and Muslim tradition: burial place of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah; Hebron)

·         Jezzar Pasha Mosque (1781 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Acre)

·         Mosque of Omar (1193 CE: Islamic; Jerusalem)

·         Mount Carmel/Karem El (600000 BP: Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens; 1500 BCE: Canaanite sacred site; grotto of Elijah; Haifa)

·         Mount Ebal [SM] (1220 BCE: ruins: Al-Kalah, Kunaisah, el Burnat; Nablus; Jerusalem)

·         Gebae (141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress; Caesarea)

·         Ezion-Geber/El Kheleifeh (8th c.BCE; Aqaba; Eilat)

·         Mount Gerizim [SM](Greco-Roman: Zeus temple; 6th c.BCE: Hadrian castle; Nablus; Jerusalem)

·         Et-Tell (1400 BCE; Beitin/Bethel)

·         Gaza (2500 BCE: Egypt-Canaanite: sea port)

·         Gezer (1350 BCE: Gezer Calendar; Abu Shusheh)

·         Gibeon (700 BCE; al-Jib)

·         Haluza (Halasa/Elusa)

·         Har Karkom [“Mount Saffron”]/Jabal Ideid/Mount Gerizim [geri=kar; zim=kom] [MA](Paleolithic cult center: 40000 rock engravings/drawings; megaliths; possible Mount Sinai/Horeb; Petra-Kadesh Barnea; Negev desert)

·         Hayonim

·         Herod’s Temple/Temple Mount [MA] [SM](19 BCE: Jerusalem; Mount Moriah [Hbr: “ordained/considered by God”]: Temple of Solomon?)

·         Herodium (40-4 BCE: Herodian fortress; Herod’s burial site; Bethlehem)

·         Hippos (300 BCE; Horbat Susita)

·         Hyrcania (141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress)

·         Jericho (9000 BCE: Tell es-Sultan)

·         Kebara Cave (60-48k BP: Neanderthal; Caesarea; Wadi Kebara; Hadera; Mt.Carmel)

·         Lachish (701 BCE)

·         Machaerus (104 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress; Dead Sea)

·         Malatha (141 BCE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress; Dead Sea)

·         Mamshit (Negev)

·         Masada (72 CE: Hasmonaean-Herodian fortress; palaces; Dead Sea)

·         Mount of Olives [SM](Jerusalem)

·         Mugharet ez-Zuttiyeh

·         Neve David (15000 BCE: Mt.Carmel)

·         Qafzeh-Skhul/Mugharet et-Skhul (100-90k BP: human remains; Nazareth; Mt.Precipice)

·         Ramat Rahel

·         Shivta (Negev)

·         Shuqba (250-45k BP: Neanderthal)

·         Sultan Ibrahim Ibn Adham Mosque (958 CE: Islamic; Beit Hanina)

·         Tabun Cave (250-45k BP: Mesolithic-Neolithic; Ramallah; Mt.Carmel)

·         Tel Arad (4000 BCE; Negev)

·         Tel Be’er Sheva (4000 BCE; Beersheeba)

·         Tel Dan (Golan)

·         Tel Hazor (1800 BCE; near Kadesh)

·         Tel Megiddo (7000 BCE)


JAPAN: [Buddhist temples (ji); Shinto shrines]

·         Adashino Nenbutsuji (811 CE: Buddh.; stupa; Kyoto)

·         Aizawa Tadahiro

·         Asuka-dera (588 CE: Buddh.; Asuka, Nara)

·         Byodo-in (998 CE: Fujiwara Palace; 1052 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Chion-in (1234 CE: Jodoshu Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Daianji (716 CE: Buddh.; Nara)

·         Daitokuji (1315 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Enryakuji (767 CE: Tendai Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Eiheiji (1244 CE: Soto Zen Buddh.; f.Eihei Dogen; Fukui)

·         Eihoji (1313 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Engakuji (1282 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; 2nd -5 Mountains; Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Fujiyama [V][SM](Chubu)

·         Futaiji/Narihira-dera (847 CE: Buddh.; Nara)

·         Gangoji (718 CE: Buddh.; Nara)

·         Ginkakuji [“Temple of Silver Pavillion”](1490 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Gionzan An’yo-in (1225 CE: Jodoshu Buddh.; Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Gokokuji (1681 CE: Shingon Buzan Buddh.; Tokyo)

·         Hasedera (686 CE: Buzon-Shigon Buddh.; Sakurai, Nara)

·         Hiei, Mount [SM](NE Kyoto; Shiga)

·         Higashi Honganji (1602 CE: Shin Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Hokkeji (745 CE: Komyo Buddh.; Nara)

·         Hokkiji (638 CE: Shotokushu Buddh.; Nara)

·         Horinji (622 CE: Shotokushu Buddh.; Nara)

·         Horyuji (607 CE: Shotokushu Buddh.; Ikaruga, Nara)

·         Inamurayama [SM](Amanouzume fertility goddess Shinto shrine: divine phallus; Tosa, Kochi)

·         Ishibutai kofun [MA] (Asuka, Nara)

·         Iwajuku (10000 BCE; Jomon: Kakasake, Midori, Gunma)

·         Jochiji (1450 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; 4th -5 Mountains; Kita-Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Jozaiji (717 CE: Tendai Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Jufukuji (1200 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; 3rd -5 Mountains; Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Kaneiji (1625 CE: Tendai Buddh.; Tokyo)

·         Kannoji (827 CE: Shinto-Buddh.; Kabutoyama; Hyogo)

·         Kenchoji (1253 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Kinkakuji [“Temple of the Golden Pavilion”] (1397 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Kofukuji (669 CE: Hosso Buddh.; Nara)

·         Kiyomizu-dera (798 CE: Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Kotoku-in (1252 CE: Jodoshu Zen Buddh.; Daibutsu; Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Mampukuji (1661 CE: Obaku Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Meigetsu-in (1383 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kamakura; Kanagawa)

·         Mieji (1450 CE: Nichiren Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Miwayama [SM][Jpn: “August/beautiful room”](250 CE: Shito: shrines, 6 tumulus/mounds: Hashihaka, Nishitonozuka, Chausuyama, Mesuriyama, Andonyama, Shibutani-muko; mirrors, weapons, ornaments, coffins; Yamamato k.; Nara)

·         Myoshiji (1342 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Nantaiyama [V](pre-Jomon: phallic stone rods; 500 BCE: Yayoi: Shinto shrines; 767 CE: Futarasan Shrine; Nikko)

·         Nanzenji (1291 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Ninnaji (888 CE: Shingon Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Nishi Honganji [“Western Temple of the Original Vow”](1602 CE: Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Ominesan [SM](8th c. CE: Shinto; Tenkawa, Nara)

·         Ryoanji [“Temple of Peaceful Dragon”](Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Saidaiji (765 CE: Shingon Buddh.; Nara)

·         Sagamiji (745 CE: Shingon Buddh.; Kasai; Hyogo)

·         Saihoji (8th c. CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Sanjusangendo (1164 CE: Tendai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Sannai Maruyama (Jomon: Sannai, Aomori)

·         Senshoji (628 CE: Sho-Kannon-Tendai Buzan Buddh.; Tokyo)

·         Shinyakushiji (747 CE: Kegon Buddh.; Nara)

·         Shohoji (1638 CE: Obaku Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Sofukuji (1390 CE: Rinzai Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Sojiji (740 CE: Soto Zen Buddh.; 2nd -5 Mountains; Noto; 1911 CE: rebuilt in Yokohama)

·         Taisekiji (1290 CE: Nichiren Shoshu Buddh.; Shizuoka)

·         Tateyama [SM][V][Jpn.: “Standing Mountain”](Shinto: Oyama shrine; Hida Mts.)

·         Tenryuji (1339 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Todaiji (8th c. CE: Kegon Buddh.; Nara)

·         Toji (796 CE: Shingon Zen Buddh.; Kyoto)

·         Toshodaiji (759 CE: Ritsu Buddh.; Nara)

·         Yakushiji (680 CE: Hosso Buddh.; Nara)

·         Yoshinogari (300 BCE; Yayoi: Yoshinogari and Kanzaki, Saga, Kyushu)

·         Zenkoji (16th c. CE: Shingon Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Zenyomitsuji (Shingon-Mahayana Buddh.; Tokyo)

·         Zuiryuji (1468 CE: Rinzai Buddh.; Gifu)

·         Zuisenji (1327 CE: Rinzai Zen Buddh.; Kamakura; Kanagawa)


·         Pyramids of Japan: Motoyama



·         Sunabe Sunken Pyramid [MA] [GP14](14000+ years ago; 1987: diver Hichiro Oritaki discovered submerged (60-100’) pyramidal complex- tools, engravings, stepped pyramid (2 football fields), cooridors, tunnels, human face (resembling Moa faces on Easter i., and sphinx), stacked megaliths; off coast of Yonaguni i.); western edge of Dragon’s Triangle in Pacific o.; Utsurobune [Jpn.: “hollow ship”]legend: woman found in hollow saucer-shaped craft off coast of Japan; 5 different drawings in different form resembling modern UFO reports; 14,000-300 BCE: Jomon period- 15000 Dogu figurines (resembling Hopi Kachina) resembling humanoid in a space/underwater diving suit; culture spawned from beings represented by Dogu; E-W trench; orientated S; on Tropic of Cancer; tilt of Earth has shifted 1°/last 10,000 years; )

[NOTE 88] 3/4 submerged sites are vile vortices- Bimini is. [GP18], Yonaguni i. (Sunabe) [GP14], Dwarka [GP12]; <non-vile vortice> Titicaca (Huanacu) [GP35]



[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Ain Ghazal (7250 BCE: Neolithic; Amman)

·         Jerash (3200 BCE: Bronze Age)

·         Petra [SM](100 BCE: Nabateans; Jebel al-Madhbah)

·         Tall al-Umayri [MA](3000 BCE: Neolithic Age; planisphere; standing stones; star stones- Andromeda, Vernal Equinox, Winter Solstice; Madaba Plains; S of Amman, E of Jerusalem)


KAZAKHSTAN: [kurgan-mounds]

·         Berel cemetery (300 BCE: kurgan 11: tomb: dozen sacrificed horses preserved w/skin, hair, harnesses, saddles, on birch bark, next to funeral chamber containing 2 Scythian nobles- sim.Ashvamedha; Bukhtarma r.)

·         Issyk kurgan (4th c.BCE: skeleton, silver cup, gold ornaments, Scythian animal art objects and headdress- Kazakh bridal hat; near Talgar)

·         Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi [SR](1389-1405 CE: Islamic; Hazrat-e Turkestan)

·         Novovelichkovskaya kurgan (2000 BCE: Yamna-Novotitorovka culture nomad tomb: 11 people, embracing couple, bronze tools, stone carvings, jewelry, ceramic vessels, red ochre; Ponura r.; Krasnodar)

·         Turkistan [SR](2nd c.BCE)


KOREA: [dolmens (1000 BCE)][MA]; [Buddh. temple (sa)]

·         Baekdudaegan Mountain/Changbaishan [“Long White Mountain”][V](2333-108 BCE: Gojoseon; Later d.: Buyeo-Goguryeo-Goryeo-Joseon; sacred ritual site; Jurchen-Jin d.; Manchu; Ryanggang, North Korea; Jilin, China; Heaven Lake)

·         Beomeosa (678 CE: Hwaeom Buddh.; national treasures: stone pagodas; Busan; South Gyeongsang)

·         Beopjusa (653 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Songnisan m.; Boeun; North Chungcheong)

·         Bongeunsa (794 CE: Buddh.; Seoul)

·         Bongseonsa (969 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Seoul; Gyeonggi)

·         Bongwonsa (889 CE: Buddh.; Seoul)

·         Bulguksa (528 CE: Jogye Buddh.; 7 national treasures: Dabotap, Seokgatap stone pagodas; North Gyeongsang)

·         Donghwasa (493 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Palgongsan; Daegu; North Gyeongsang)

·         Ganghwa

·         Geumsansa (600 CE: Jogye Buddh.; national treasures; Moaksan m.; Gimje; North Jeolla)

·         Gochang

·         Guinsa (1945 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Sobaek m.; Danyang; North Chungcheong)

·         Haeinsa (802 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Three Jewels Temple; 1398 CE: Tripitaka Koreana; Gaya m.; South Gyeongsang)

·         Hwaeomsa (544 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Three Jewels Temple; d.1590s; Jirisan m.; Gurye; South Jeolla)

·         Hwangnyongsa [“Golden/Yellow Dragon Temple”](553 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Gyeongju; North Gyeongsang)

·         Hwasun

·         Jikjisa (418 CE: Jogye Buddh.; d.1590s; r.1610; Hwangaksan; Gimcheon; North Gyeongsang)

·         Jogyesa (1395 CE: Buddh.; Seoul)

·         Magoksa (640 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Gongju; South Chungcheong)

·         Miruksa (602 CE: Buddh.; Iksan; North Jeolla)

·         Musangsa (Zen Buddh.; Jogye m.; Daejeon)

·         Naksansa (671 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Naksan m.; Sokcho; Gangwon)

·         Oseam (643 CE: Buddh.; Seorak m.; Gangwon)

·         Pohyonsa (11th c. CE: Buddh.; Myohyang m.; Hyangsan; Jeollabuk)

·         Seonunsa (6th c. CE: Jogye Buddh.; Dosolsan m.; Gochang; North Pyongan)

·         Silleuksa (580 CE: Buddh.; Yeoju; Gyeonggi)

·         Sinheungsa (653 CE: Seon/Zen Jogye Buddh.; Seoraksan m.; Sokcho; Gangwon)

·         Songgwangsa (Zen Jogye Buddh.; Three Jewels Temple; Jogye m.; Suncheon; South Jeolla)

·         Ssanggyesa (722 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Jirisan m.; Hadong; South Gyeongsang)

·         Sudeoksa (1308 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Deoksungsan; South Chungcheong)

·         Tongdosa (646 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Three Jewels Temple; Chiseosan m.; Yangsan; South Gyeongsang)

·         Woljeongsa (643 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Odaesan m.; Pyeongchang; Gangwon)

·         Yongjusa (854 CE: Jogye Buddh.; Hwaseong; Gyeonggi)



·         Issyk Kul Lake [SR](500 BCE)

·         Gazzalakonda cairn

·         Sulayman Mountain [SM] (several millennia: place of worship; Muslim; Osh)



·         Oum Moung (13th c.CE; Angkorian temple; near Wat Phou)

·         Plain of Jars [MA](500 BCE; Xieng Khouang)

·         Pha That Luang (3rd c.CE: stupa; national symbol; Vientiane)

·         That Dam/Black Stupa (stupa; according to legend: protected by seven-headed naga; Vientiane)

·         Wat Phou (5th c.CE/11th-13th c.CE: Khmer temple; Mekong r.; Champasak)



·         Anjar (c.600 CE: Umayyads)

·         Baalbek [MA](2900 BCE)

·         Byblos (3000 BCE: oldest port; cedar)

·         Fakhredine Mosque (1493 CE: Islamic; Deir el Qamar)

·         Khatem Al-Anbiyaa Mosque (Beirut)

·         Mansouri Great Mosque (1294-1314 CE: Norman-Mamluk Islamic; Tripoli)

·         Sayyida Khawla Mosque (Beirut)

·         Sidon (6000 BCE: Neolithic; 4000 BCE: Egypt-Canaanite; Phoenician capital)

·         Tyre (2750 BCE: Egypt-Canaanite; sea port)



·         Batu Caves (1891 CE: Murugan-Hindu; Gombak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur)

·         Bujang (Dragon) Valley (300 CE: Hindu-Buddhist)

·         Cheng Hoon Teng [“Temple of Green Cloud”](1645 CE: Taoist; Malacca)

·         Dhammikarama Burmese Temple (1803 CE: Theravada Buddh.; Penang)

·         Kek Lok Si [“Temple of Supreme Bliss”](1890 CE: Buddh.; Air Itam; Penang)

·         Kota Tampan (300000 BP: Paleolithic; Lenggong)

·         Niah Caves (40000 BP; Sarawak; Miri)

·         Snake Temple (1850 CE: Buddh.; Penang)

·         Sungai Tingkayu

·         Wat Chaiya Mangkalaram (1845 CE: Thai Buddh.; Penang)


MONGOLIA: [kurgans; Tib.Buddh. temples/monasteries]

·         Amarbayasgalant Monastery (1727 CE: Buddh.; Baruunburen Sum; Selenge)

·         Erdene Zuu Monastery (1585 CE: Buddh.; Kharkohin; Ovorkhangai)

·         Gandantegchinlen Gompa [“Great Palace of Complete Joy”](1835 CE: Tib.Buddh.; Ulaanbaatar)

·         Karakorum (13th c.CE: Mongolian e.; Hujurt)

·         Noin-Ula kurgans [SR](2nd c.BCE: 200 large kurgans- square footprint, timber burial chambers w/deep shafts, horse burials, lavish furnishings, Chinese coffin, Chinese Xian-ping lacquer cups, Greco-Bactrian textiles; burial tomb of Xiongnu- ruler of Hun federation; 13 CE: Kurgan 6- tomb of Uchjulu-Jodi-Chanuy; Selenga r.; N Ulan Bator)

·         Shankh Monastery (1647 CE: Buddh.; Kharkohin; Ovorkhangai)


NEPAL: [Hindu-Buddhist temples, shrines (stupa)]

·         Adinath Lokeshwar Mandir (15th c.CE: Chobar)

·         Ashok Stupa, Pulchowk (Lalitpur)

·         Ashok Stupa, Lagankhel (Lalitpur)

·         Bhadgaon

·         Bodhnath (500 CE: largest Buddhist Stupa in the world; Bagmati)

·         Bungmati (Lalitpur)

·         Changu Narayan (3rd c.CE: Vishnu Temple; Thimi)

·         Devadaha (Gautama Buddha holy site of preaching; near Kapilvastu)

·         Indradev Samskarita Jay Manohar Varma Mahavihara (Su Baha; Lalitpur)

·         Itumbahal (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Janabahal (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Kangchenjunga [SM] [Nepali: “The Five Treasures of Snows”](Himalayas)

·         Kankre Bihar (Surkhet)

·         Kapilavastu (7th c.BCE: Tilaurakot- Shakya fortress founded by Gautama Buddha’s father, Suddhodana; near Lumbini)

·         Kathmandu

·         Kirtipunya Mahabihar (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Lokeshwar, Chobhar (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Lumbini (563-483 BCE: birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha; Rupandehi; Kapilbastu)

·         Machapuchare [SM] [Nepali: “Fish’s Tail”](sacred to Hindu Shiva; Annapurna Himal)

·         Mahabauddha (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Mahamanjushree (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Manakamana [“heart/soul wish”] (1600s CE: Manakamana-Hindu; Gandaki, Gorkha)

·         Manjushree temple (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Muktinath (Hindu-Buddh; Beni/Dhawalagiri; Rasuwa)

·         Nyatapola (1701 CE: 5 story pagoda; Bhaktapur)

·         Ombahal (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Pashupatinath (5th c.CE: largest Hindu Shiva pagoda temple in the world; Kathmandu; Bagmati r.)

·         Patan

·         Shankerdev Samskarita Mayurvarna Mahavihara

·         Sheeghal (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Swayambhunath/Monkey Temple [Tibetan: “shrine to the eternal self-existent flame”] (5th c.BCE: Buddha teaches at site; 3rd c.BCE: Emperor Ashoka built a temple later destroyed; 5th c.CE; Kathmandu)

·         Tukanbahal (Buddh.; Kathmandu)

·         Vajrayogini (Thimi)


PAKISTAN: [Buddhist stupa]

·         Badshahi Mosque (1671 CE; Lahore)

·         Butkara Stupa (2nd c.CE: Mauryan; Swat)

·         Dharmarajika [SR](3rd c.BCE: Buddhist stupa; Taxila)

·         Dholavira (2nd m.BCE: Harappa culture)

·         Harappa (3300 BCE; Sahiwal)

·         Kanishka Stupa [SR](2nd c.CE: Kushan; Peshawar; Shah-Ji-ki-Dheri)

·         Katasraj Temple (6th c.CE: Hindu; legend: Mahabharata, Pandava; Katas, Chakwal, Punjab)

·         Lahore Fort (4th c.CE: gold coins; 1025 CE)

·         Mankiala (7th c.CE; Rawalpindi)

·         Mehrgarh (7000 BCE; Balochistan)

·         Mohabbat Khan Mosque (1670 CE: Islamic; Peshawar)

·         Mohenjo Daro [MA](Larkana) (2600 BCE: Harappa culture/Indus Valley)

·         Rakhigarhi (2nd m.BCE: Harappa culture)

·         Ranikot Fort (400-836 CE; Hyderbad)

·         Rohtas Fort (1500 CE; Dina)

·         Sialkot Fort (2500 BCE; 2nd c.CE)

·         Takht-i-Bahi (1st c.BCE; Mardan)

·         Taxila [SR](600 BCE: oldest university; Islamabad)



·         Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque (1380 CE: Islamic; 1st mosque in Philippines; Tawi-Tawi)


RUSSIA: [cave paintings; Shang d. China (Bronze Age) influence]

(see also Russia in Europe)

·         Arkaim (2000 BCE: Proto-Aryans; Earliest Chariot; Chelyabinsk)

·         Avdeevo

·         Gambell Sites

·         Ignateva Cave (6000 BCE: microliths, cave paintings; Chelyabinsk

·         Krivoye Ozero (2000 BCE: Magnitogorsk)

·         Mezin (13000 BCE)

·         Okladnikov (45-28k BP: Neanderthal-human)

·         Orvik

·         Pazyrryk culture

·         Pshada r. dolmen

·         Sintashta (2000 BCE: Proto-Aryans; Arkaim)

·         Talitski (13000 BCE)

·         Ubsunur Hollow (between Tannu-Ola and Altai mts.) (4000 BCE: 20,000 burial mounds; Tuva)

·         Uelen (500 BCE)

·         Yeliseevichi




[NOTE 54: Andis Kaulins’s speculations of standing stones as megalithic geodetic astronomical tools (“star stones”; megalithic star-stone alignments by region and site, and stone markings/carvings matching those pertaining alignments) in conjunction with his linguistic (esp.Gaelic, Latvian, Pharaonic) hypotheses are compiled for study; see http://www.megaliths.net; North Ecliptic Pole at Paris, North Celestial Pole near Orleans at 3117 BCE]


·         Al-Masjid al-Haram [“The Sacred Mosque”]/Grand Mosque (638 CE: Sunni-Salafi Islamic; Kaaba; Mecca)

·         Rajajil Stones [MA](3117 BCE: Neolithic; Dumat al Jandal; in line with 30th parallel and Giza; in N-S line with Mecca; S Sakakah; Al Jawf)



·         Anuradhapura (10th c.BCE: Protohistoric; ancient sacred capital)

   Eight Great Places (Atamasthana) of Veneration in Anuradhapura:

1)  Abhayagiri Dagaba (2nd c.BCE; Anuradhapura)

2)  Jaya Sri Maha Bodhiya (288 BCE: sacred fig tree; Anuradhapura)

3)  Jetavanaramaya (2nd c.CE; Anuradhapura)

4)  Lankarama (stupa; Anuradhapura)

5)  Lovamahapaya (building; Mahawamsa)

6)  Mirisaveti Stupa (Anuradhapura)

7)  Ruwanwelisaya (dagoba stupa; Anuradhapura)

8)  Thuparamaya (1862: dagoba-stupa; Anuradhapura)


Isurumuniya (5th c.CE: rock temple)

Maha Viharya



   Other Structures:

o    Dakkhina Stupa (2nd c.BCE: stupa built over ashes of King Dutugemunu)Isurumuniya (4th c.CE: viharaya cliff temple and stupa; Tisawewa)

o    Kiribath Vehera

o    Kuttam Pokuna (bathing pool/tank)

o    Magul Uyana (ancient garden)

o    Naka Vihara (stupa; clay caskets)

o    Queen’s Palace

o    Rathna Prasadaya (2nd c.CE: skyscraper)

o    Sela Cetiya (1st c.BCE: stupa)

o    Samadhi Statue

o    Toluwila Statue

o    Vessagiri (rocks and caves)


·         Dambulla cave temple/Golden Temple of Dambulla (2700 BP: bones; 1st c.BCE: Hindu-Buddh.; 5 caves; E Colombo, N Kandy)

·         Kalutara Vihara (world’s only hollow dagoba/Buddhist shrine with 74 murals of Buddha’s life)

·         Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara (500 BCE: Buddh.; Colombo)

·         Ketheeswaram Temple (7th c.CE: Dravidian Shiva-Hindu; Manthai, Mannar)

·         Kothduwa Temple (1860 CE: Buddh.; 340 CE: Buddha tooth relic; Kothduwa)

·         Nallur Kandaswamy Temple (1749 CE: Murugan-Hindu; Jaffna)

·         Rankoth Viharaya (Buddh.; Panadura)

·         Senanayake Aramaya (Buddh.; sacred hair relic; Madampe)

·         Solosmasthana (16 sacred places believed to have been visited by Gautama Buddha):

1)    Abhayagiri Dagaba (2nd c.BCE; Anuradhapura)

2)    Dighavapi (3rd c.CE: Buddhist sacred shrine; “Long Tank;” Ampara)

3)    Diva Guhava (cave where Buddha stayed; Ratnapura)

4)    Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi

5)    Jetavanaramaya (see above)

6)    Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara (before 500 BCE: Buddhist temple; Buddha visitation)

7)    Kiri Vehera (3rd c.BCE: stupa; Kataragama)

8)    Mahiyangana (543 BCE: Buddha’s clavicle bone is enshrined; 2nd c.BCE: renovated stupa)

9)    Mirisavetiya (see above)

10)   Muthiyangana Raja Maha Vihara (5th c.BCE: Buddhist temple; visited by Gautama Buddha; Badulla)

11)   Nagadipa (built by Naga kings)

12)   Ruwanwelisaya (see above)

13)   Sela Cetiya

14)   Sri Pada/Adam’s or Buddha’s Footprint (Ratnapura, Sabaragamuwa)

15)   Tissamaharama (2nd c. BCE: large dagoba-stupa; Rahuna; Yala NP)

16)   Thuparamaya (see above)

·         Sri Dalada Maligawa/The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic (1595 CE: Buddh.; Kandy)



·         Amlah (Bronze Age: burial ground; al-Zahirah)

·         Lizq (fortified mountain settlement)

·         Ras al-Jins (settlement and burial area)

·         Samad al-Shan (Samad culture burial area; al-Mudhaybi; Sharqiyah)

·         Shir (burial ground)



·         Aleppo/Halab [SR](5000 BCE: Amorite; 1600 BCE: Hittite; 800 BCE: Assyrian; 333 BCE: Greek; 64 BCE: Roman)

·         Al-Fadael Mosque (1062 CE: Islamic; Hims)

·         Al-Nouri Mosque (1129 CE: Islamic; Hims)

·         Aqsab Mosque [SR](1234 CE: Ayyubid Islamic; Damascus)

·         Bosra (14th c.BCE)

·         Darwish Pasha Mosque [SR](1574 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Damascus)

·         Dederiyeh (250-45k BP: proto-Neanderthal)

·         Dura Eurpous

·         Ebla [t. “white rock;” Sum.: “light beer”] (2500 BCE: Akkadian/Egyptian inscriptions; 17000 cuneiform tablets written in Sumerian to record Eblaite lang. <prev.unknown Semitic lang.; 2nd oldest written lang. to Akkadian>

·         Great Mosque of Aleppo [SR](1090 CE: minaret; 13th c.CE: Mamluk Islamic; said to entomb of Zechariah, father of John the Baptist; Aleppo)

·         Nabi Habeel [“Abel”] Mosque [SR](1599 CE: Islamic; believed to contain the grave of Abel, son of Adam; Barada r.; Damascus)

·         Nur al-Din Mosque (1172 CE: Islamic; Hama)

·         Palmyra/Tadmor [Amor.: “town that repels”] (2nd m. BCE: temple of Bel; crossroads between Meditarranean and Euphrates)

·         Sinan Pasha Mosque [SR](1590 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Damascus)

·         Tell Abu Hureyra [SR](11500 BP: Mesolithic/Natufian culture; l.Assad; Aleppo)

·         Tell Halaf (Neolithic; 750 BCE: ivory panel of tree of life; Iraq Museum; Ras al’Ayn)

·         Tekkiye Mosque [SR](1544-58 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Damascus)

·         Ugarit [Arabic: “cape of wild fennel”] (6000 BCE: Neolithic wall fortification; necropolis; Phoenician; Ras Shamra)

·         Umayyad Mosque [SR](715 CE: Umayyad Islamic; Damascus)

·         Mari (5th m.BCE: 260 room palace; 25000 Akkadian tablets; Tell Hariri; Abu Kamal)

·         Qatna (3rd m.BCE: Bronze Age; Tell el-Mishrife; near Homs)

·         Zenobia


THAILAND: [Buddhist temple (wat); village (ban)]

·         Ban Chiang (4420 BCE: earliest Bronze Age in the world; Nong Han; near Udon Thani)

·         Ban Grong Greng Rin (Buddh. village; Phitsanulok)

·         Ban Laemphrathat (Buddh. village; Phitsanulok)

·         Ban Non Wat (Neolithic: burials; ancient Khmer highway; Non Sung; Phimai; near Nakhon Ratchasima)

·         Krue Sae Mosque (16th c.CE: Islamic; Pattani)

·         Mueang Sing (1180-1219 CE; Sai Yok, Kanchanaburi)

·         Muang Tum (10th c.CE: Khmer temple; Prakhon Chai)

·         Phra Pathom Chedi (4th c.ce: artifacts; 11th c.CE: Khmer prang; 1870; tallest stupa in world; Nakhon Pathom; Bangkok)

·         Phanom Rung (10th c.CE: Shiva temple; Buriram)

·         Phra That Si Song Rak (1560 CE: Lan Xang-Ayutthaya Kingdom; stupa; Dan Sai)

·         Phimai (7th/11th c. CE; end of ancient Khmer Hwy)

·         Sdok Kok Thom (11th c.CE: Khmer Shiva temple; NE Aranyaprathet)

·         Wat Arun [“Temple of the Dawn”](1809 CE: Buddh.; Chao Phraya r.; Bangkok)

·         Wat Benchamabophit Dusitvanaram (1899 CE: Buddh; Bangkok)

·         Wat Bunglam (Buddh.; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Chedi Liem (13-18th c.CE: Buddh.; Ping r.; Wiang Kum Kam; Chiang Mai)

·         Wat Chedi Luang (14th c.CE: Buddh.; Chiang Mai)

·         Wat Chedi Yot Thong (Buddh.; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Chiang Man (1297 CE: Buddh.; Chiang Mai)

·         Wat Chulamani (Buddh.; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Nang Phaya (1450 CE: Buddh. monastery; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Pho/Temple of Reclining Buddha (1788 CE: Buddh.; birthplace of Thai massage; Bangkok)

·         Wat Phra Kaew (18th c.CE: Hindu-Theravada Buddh.; Bangkok)

·         Wat Phra Kaew (940 CE: Buddh.; Chiang Rai)

·         Wat See Bun Mayiga Ram (Buddh.; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat Woramahawihan (1357 CE: Buddh.; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Phra Singh (1345 CE: Buddh.; Chiang Mai)

·         Wat Phra Singh (1385 CE: Buddh.; Chiang Rai)

·         Wat Phrathat Doi Chom Thong (940 CE: Buddh.; Chiang Rai)

·         Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep (1383 CE: Buddh.; Chiang Mai)

·         Wat Ratchaburana (1463 CE: Buddh.; Phitsanulok)

·         Wat Ratchanadda (1846 CE: Buddh.; Bangkok)

·         Wat Suthat (1807 CE: Buddh; giant swing; Bangkok)

·         Wat Umong (1300s CE: Buddh.; Chiang Mai)



[NOTE 94] Hittite language (Indo-European- similarities to Sanskrit, Greek, English, German) studied by Bedrick Rosney (Czech)

·         Aigai (3rd-2nd c.BCE; Aeolis)

·         Akdamar Is. (915 CE: Cathedral of the Holy Cross; l.Van)

·         Akhisar/Thyatira (3000 BCE: Hittite)

·         Alabanda (Greco-Roman; Doganyurt/Araphisar)

·         Alaca Hoyuk (4th m.BCE: Hattian-Hittite: mound w/burials in fetus position facing south, gold-iron sword, sun disk, sphinx gate, dams; Hattusa; Bogazkale)

·         Alalakh (2000 BCE: Amorite; Tell Atchana; near Antioch/Antakya)

·         Alexandria Troas/Sigia (310 BCE: Greco-Roman; Bozcaada)

·         Alinda (2nd m.BCE: Hittite; Caria; Karpuzlu)

·         Alisar (4th m.BCE; Yozgat)

·         Allianoi (Prehistoric: Yortan vessel, flint stones; Hellenistic; 2nd c.CE: Roman: insulae, propylon, nympheum; Bergama)

·         Amuk (Antakya)

·         Anastasian Wall (aka.Long Walls of Thrace)(5th c.CE: from Evcik Iskelesi to Sea of Marmara- 56km)

·         Ani (5th c.CE; Kars)

·         Ankara (Hittite)

·         Antigonia (Syria)

·         Antioch/Antakya [SR](4th c.BCE)

·         Antioch on the Maeander (Pythopolis; Kuyucak)

·         Antioch, Pisidia (Yalvac)

·         Antiochia Lamotis (Erdemli)

·         Antiochia ad Cragum (170 BCE: Cragus, Sidyma)

·         Antiochia Pyramum (Cilicia; Karatas)

·         Antiochia, Lydia

·         Apamea (Phrygia) (Greco-Roman; Burdur)

·         Apamea Myrlea (202 BCE; Mudanya)

·         Aphrodisias (Hellenistic; Roman; Caria; Geyre)

·         Apros (Trace; Roman-Catholic; unknown loc; near Tekirdag)

·         Ararat/Mount Judi [SM](mythological landing place of Noah’s Ark; beginning place of post-diluvial civilization; Sirnak; Armenian Highland)

·         Ariassos (Antalya; Dag)

·         Arycanda (2nd m.BCE; Aykiricay, Antalya)

·         Aspendos (1000 BCE: Greco-Roman; Serik)

·         Attalia/Antalya (3rd c.BCE)

·         Bayezid II Mosque [SR](1501-6 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Bogazxoy (aka. Hattusa: Hittite)

·         Bursa Grand Mosque (1396-1400 CE: Seljuk Islamic; Bursa)

·         Carchemish (Hittite)

·         Catalhoyuk [t.Turk.: “fork mound”] (7500 BCE; Konya)

·         Cayonu (7200 BCE; Diyarbakir)

·         Cebrene (Greco-Roman; Alexandria; Bayramic)

·         Ceramus (Oren)

·         Corycus (191 BCE; Kizkalesi)

·         Cremna, Pisidia (25 BCE)

·         Didyma [MA]

·         Digda (Tire; Odemis)

·         Dorylaeum (Roman; Eskisehir)

·         Edessa, Mesopotamia (2nd c.BCE; Sanliurfa)

·         Eflatunpinar (Hittite)

·         Ephesus/Apasas (6000 BCE: Hittite; 550 BCE: Temple of Artemis, 7 wonders; theatre; Roman; Selchuk)

·         Elaiussa Sebaste [t.Gk.:”olive”] (2nd c.BCE: Roman; Silifke; Mersin)

·         Emirdag (1437 BCE: Hittite; Afyon; Eskisehir)

·         Epiphania, Cilicia (orig.Oiniandos; 2nd c.BCE; Cukurova; Adana)

·         Euromus (6th c.BCE: temple of Zeus Lepsinos; Kyromus/Hyromus; Selimiye; Milas)

·         Eyup Sultan Mosque [SR](1458 CE: Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Fatih Mosque [SR](1463-70 CE: Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Gavurkale (Hittite)

·         Gobekli Tepe [MA] [t.Turk.: “hill with a navel”](10000 BCE; Sanliurfa)

·         Gordium (12th c.BCE: Thracian; Polatli)

·         Great Temple and Yerkapi rampart [MA](2000 BCE; Hattusa/Bogazkale)

·         Hasankeyf (1800 BCE)

·         Hacilar (7400 BCE; Burdur)

·         Hagia Sophia [MA][SR](532-7 CE: Byzantine; 1453: church converted to Ayasofya mosque; Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Harran [t.Akk.: Harranu, “road, path; campaign journey”](1100 BCE: Babylonian; Roman; home of moon god, Sin)

·         Hattusa [MA](6th m.BCE: Neolithic; fortresses, tunnels, fountain irrigation; Hatti; Hittite capital; sphinx; Bogazkale)

·         House of Virgin Mary (Ephesus)

·         Hosap Castle (Guzelsu)

·         Iopolis (Greek: where moon goddess Io was worshipped; mt. Silpion; Antioch)

·         Ivriz (8th c.BCE; Hittite-Assyrian; Eregli)

·         Jagca Koy (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)

·         Kerkenes (pre-Hellenistic; Yozgat)

·         Knidos (Hellenistic: Dorian Hexapolis; Tekir)

·         Kadirli/Kars [SR](Hittite; Adana)

·         Kaman-Kalehoyuk (Bronze Age; 1800 BCE: oldest steel fragments)

·         Karabel (Hittite)

·         Karaman/Laranda (Greek)

·         Karatepe [t.”black hill”] (Hittite fortress)

·         Kestel (3290 BCE: Bronze Age: tin mining; Taurus mts.; Karaman)

·         Kultepe/Kanesh (2000 BCE; Kayseri)

·         Kusakli (16th c.BCE: Hittite; Basoren/Altinyayla)

·         Kustul Monastery (752 CE; Trabzon)

·         Laleli Mosque [SR](1783 CE: Baroque Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Magnesia on the Maeander (Hellenistic city; Germencik)

·         Metropolis (Neolithic: temple of Ares; Torbali; Izmir)

·         Miletus (Neolithic; Minoan; Cretan; Achaean; Akkoy)

·         Nemrud Dagi [MA](62 BCE: Armenian Highlands, Adiyaman)

·         Nevali Cori (8th m.BCE: Neolithic: temples, monumental sculpture; Vedic; Urfa)

·         Nuruosmaniye Mosque [SR](1749-55 CE: Ottoman Baroque Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Olympos (Hellenistic; Kemer)

·         Patara/Arsinoe (Hellenistic: oracle center, theatre, temple of Apollo; Gelemis)

·         Perga (12th c.BCE: acropolis; Antalya)

·         Pergamon/Bergama (281 BCE: Greek city; acropolis)

·         Panionium (550 BCE: Ionian sanctuary of Poseidon; Soke; Izmir)

·         Pednelissus, Pisidia (2nd c.CE; near Selge; Kozan)

·         Pepuza (2nd c.CE: center for Christian church of Montanism; Tymion; Karahalli)

·         Phaselis (700 BCE: Rhodians; Kemer)

·         Pinarbasi Golu (spear heads, dagger, axes; Anatolia)

·         Pompeiopolis (Roman; Taskopru)

·         Rustem Pasha Mosque [SR](1561-3 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Sagalassos (8000 BCE; 14th c.BCE: Hittite; Aglasun; Isparta; Burdur)

·         Sardis (472 BCE: Greek-Persian; Izmir)

·         Samosata (7000 BCE: relics; 160 BCE: Hellenistic capital; Samsat; Adiyaman damn)

·         Sapinuwa [t.Hattic: sapi, “god”] (17th c.BCE: Bronze Age: Hittite city; Ortakoy; Yozgat)

·         Seleucia/Pamphylia (Greco-Roman: agora, mausoleum, necropolis; Side; Manavgat)

·         Seleucia Pieria/Palaeopolis [SR][t.Gk.: “old city”] (300 BCE; part of Syrian tetrapolis- Apamea, Laodicea, Antioch; necropolis; Samandag)

·         Seleucia Sidera (Roman: Egirdir; Isparta)

·         Selge, Pisidia (Hellenistic; acropolis)

·         Selimiye Mosque (1575 CE: Islamic; Edirne)

·         Skepsis (Kursuntepe; Bayramic)

·         Smyrna (7th-4th m.BCE: Chalcolithic-Neolithic settlements; 3rd m.BCE: Bayrakli; 1500 BCE: Hittite; 11th c.BCE: Aeolian-Greek; 610 BCE: Lydian; 545 BCE: Persian; 340 BCE: Alexander; 133 BCE: Roman; 178 CE: earthquake devastation; 1076 CE: Seljuk Turks; 1204: 4th Crusade; 1389: Ottoman Empire; Izmir)

·         Stratonicea [name of Seleucid’s wives](Lydia)/Indi/Hadrianopolis (Hellenistic: Siledik; Kirkagac)

·         Suleymaniye Mosque [SR](1557 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Sultan Ahmed Mosque/Blue Mosque [SR](1616 CE: Ottoman Islamic; Istanbul)

·         Sumela Monastery (386 CE; Trabzon)

·         Tell Tayinat [SR](Hittite/Aramean; Antioch)

·         Tille (4th m.BCE: surface pottery; Adiyaman)

·         Toprakkale/Rusahinili [t.Urart.: “city of king Rusa II”] (9th c.BCE; Van; Ararat)

·         Tripolis (Phrygia)/Neapolis/ Apollonia/Antoninopolis (Greco-Roman: necropolis; Yenicekent; Denizli)

·         Trocmades (Roman-Catholic; Eskisehir)

·         Tushhan (Iron Age: Assyrian; Ziyaret Tepe)

·         Tyana (2nd m.BCE: Hittite; Nigde)

·         Termessos (Anatolian: necropolis, theatre, gymnasium; Gulluk Dagi)

·         Troy/Wilusa/Truwisa)

·         Xanthos/Arinna (Hittite; Luwian; Greco-Roman; Kinik)

·         Yazilikaya [t.Turk.:”inscribed rock”](15th c.BCE: Hittite; Corum)

·         Yenikapi [SR](6500 BCE; Istanbul)

·         Yesil Mosque (1421 CE: Islamic; Bursa)

·         Yesilova Hoyuk [t.Turk.: “mound”](6500 BCE; Bornova; Izmir)

·         Zeugma [t.Gk.:”yoke”]

·         Zincirli Hoyuk/Samal (10th c.BCE: Syro-Hittite)



·         Merv/Meru/Margiana [SR](Prehistoric; 3rd m.BCE: possible origin of Hindu Mt.Meru; 12th c.CE: largest city in world; Mary)



·         Aman-Kutan (45-28k BP: transitional-Neanderthal)

·         Bibi-Khanym Mosque [SR](1399-1404 CE; 1897 CE: earthquake; Islamic; Samarkand)

·         Bukhara [t.Soghdian: “lucky place”] [SR](3000 BCE: Sapalli culture; 6th c.BCE: Persian)

·         Po-i-Kalyan [SR](1514 CE: Islamic; Bukhara)

·         Samarkand [SR] (700 BCE)

·         Teshik-Tash (250-45k BP: Neanderthal-human)

·         Ulugh Beg Madrasa [SR](Islamic; Samarkand)



·         Bao Quoc Pagoda (1670 CE: Buddh.; Hue)

·         Buu Phong Temple (17th